Ethnobotany

The project to date has collected a great deal of botanical vocabulary and information about the traditional uses of plants. The list below is what we have so far. Many of the species were identified with the help of Elizabeth Escalona Gutiérrez and the Ethnoboanical lab at the National School of Anthropology in Mexico City.

  • a:hé:xtu’ —1) Mutamba or West Indian Elm (Guazuma ulmifolia); 2) the fruit of this tree
  • a:xí:lh —Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia spp.)
  • a:xú:x (Sp. “ajo”) —Garlic (Allium sativum)
  • a:’kunkulím (Sp. “ajonjolí”) —Sesame (Sesamum indicum)
  • a:’siwí’ —1) Guava (Psidium spp.); 2) (ni) girlfriend, sweetheart
  • a:’staká:t —Willow (Salix bonplandiana)
  • a:’ti:yá:h (Ch. (Pt. a:’ti:yá:k)) —1) Giant Reed, Spanish Cane (Arundo donax L.); 2) flute
  • a:’tu:’chi:yé:klh (Pt. (Ch. a:’tu:’chi:yé:tlh)) —Mint (Mentha spp.)
  • á:’ya’ —Chilacayote, Malabar Gourd (Curcurbita ficifolia)
  • aluwe:sáj —Blue Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), a variety of legume
  • alhtahá:t —Smooth Johnnyberry (Miconia laevigata (L.) DC)
  • aná:ya’ —large unidentified tree that produces a sweet, avocado-like fruit
  • asán —fruit-bearing tree (probably Tapirira mexicana) of the sumac family
  • asiyé:ti’ (Sp. “aceite”) —1) cooking oil; 2) Ch. (Pt. xti:lanhá:’) Castor Bean Tree (Ricinus communis (L.)), leaves ground with tomato, baking powder, and fat and used as a plaster applied to a patient’s stomach to cure fevers
  • astabiyát (Ch. (Pt. sta:wi:yák); N. “iztáuhyatl”) —Mexican Wormwood (Artemisia mexicana), medicinal plant used to cure espanto
  • a’hachi’xít já:ka’ —Sansapote (Licania platypus)
  • a’halo’hostapún —type of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
  • a’halu:wi:xaná:t (Ch.) —unidentified flower, used in compresses to cure asthma, coughs, and wounds
  • a’halumán —unidentified tree with sticky red fruit that grows in bunches, used for firewood; its leaves were used for wrapping meat
  • a’halhpáuj (Ch. (Pt. a’halhpój)) —unidentified plant resembling a rubber plant
  • a’hasliwít xa’ná:t —Angel’s Trumpet (Brumansia x insignis)
  • a’hati:láh —Coral Bean Tree (Erythrina spp.), produces an edible flower
  • a’hatzá:s —spring Onion (Alium cepa)
  • a’hawínchu’ —unidentified edible shelf mushroom
  • a’haxu:nu:’kí’wi’ —unidentified species of large tree
  • a’hmu’lú:tlarge fig-shaped Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina)), cut in half and used to keep tortillas warm
  • a’hó:wa’ —Pumpwood, Trumpet Tree (Cecropia obtusifolia Bert.), hosts ant colonies (Azteca spp.); its bark is used to treat diabetes and the sprouts are made into a tea to treat vision problems.
  • a’hspa:matá:n —unidentified species of willow-like tree
  • a’hta:la:wát (Pt. (Ch. a’hta:la:wá’h)) —unidentified species of plant with edible berries the size of cherries
  • a’htzí:s pá’hlhma’ —unidentified plant that expels its seeds when they are mature
  • á’jna’ —Spurge Nettle, Tread Softly (Cnidoscolus multilobus (Pax.) Johnston), flower boiled, drained, and scrambled with eggs
  • a’kchikí’wi’ —Sweetsop, Chirimoya (Anona squamosa)
  • a’kchukút —Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina)) with short neck for carrying water, etc.
  • a’klhkunuku:xa’ná:t —1) Magnolia, Heartflower Tree (Talauma mexicana), used in the voladores dance; 2) flower of this tree, dried and ground for atole or used to make tea
  • a’kxápu’ (Ch. (Pt. kukxápu’)) —unidentified fruit-bearing tree, prefered for making fans for the temazcal
  • cha:la’hán —unidentified species of flowering vine
  • cha:tá: (Pt. (Ch. cha:táy)) —unidentified tree with long, needle-like spines and an edible berry
  • cha:’písu —unidentified species of vine, poss. Philodendron hederuceum (Jacq.) Schott, its sap is used to seal cuts
  • chácha —Pitaya, Pitahaya, Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus)
  • chalanha:xa’ná:t (Ch. (Pt. xachalánha’ xa’ná:t)) —Impatience (Impatiens balsamina (L.))
  • champulú’lu’ —unidentified bush, possibly a variety of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.)
  • cha’há:’ —Capulin, Jamaican Nettle Tree, Guacimilla, Florida Trema (Trema micrantha)
  • cha’n —plant sth (crop) using planting stick or by opening hole in the soil
  • cha’nkát —Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • che:jkú’ka’ —Thistle (Cirsium ehrenbergii Schultz and Bip.)
  • che’he:li:pá’lhna’ —plant used for making brooms, scrubbing dishes; also used to cleanse the bed of a baby during its levantamiento
  • chikíchi’ —unidentified plant with a large, smooth leaf used to wrap tamales
  • chilí:x —Scratchbush, Cow-Itch, Ortiga (Urera baccifera), spiny plant that causes an itchy rash when touched
  • cho’hlhchó’hlh (Ch.) —flower of False Plantain or Lobster Claw (Heliconia bihai)
  • cho’hó:x —Sawgrass (Cladium spp.)
  • chó’hxma’ —Canna (Canna indica) flower
  • chu:’tá’ —Physic Nut, Purging Nut (Jatropha curcas L.), cones contain seeds which are edible when cooked and used as a purgative when raw, the sap is used to cure cottonmouth
  • chulún —1) rattle (toy); 2) Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina)) used to make rattles
  • ha:’x —gourd of the Calabash Tree (Crescentia cujete), halved and used as bowl or cup (ta:ho:nú’)
  • ha’lhwa’hkí’wi’ (Ch.) —unidentified species of small tree with red wood and yellow sap
  • ha’lhwa’hxa’ná:t —unidentified species of flowering tree with large yellow blossoms
  • he:línti’ (Pt. (Ch. pa:línti’)) —large oblong Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina)) for carrying water
  • he:ntza’lí:lh —unidentified species of edible vine
  • helhpixí:x —unidentified plant with white flower and thick stalk, leaves like those of the False Plantain (Heliconia bihai)
  • helhpu’xám —Marigold (Tagetes erecta), used to decorate altars on the Day of the Dead
  • helhsmantáj —1) Acacho bush (Parathesis serrulata (Swartz)), produces bunches of small, purple berries used in atole; 2) the fruit of this bush
  • he’tíli’ (Ch.) —unidentified plant that produces inedible berries
  • ho:ntzápa’ (Ch.) —unidentified plant used to treat scrapes
  • ho:ntzápu’ —unidentified plant with large odiferous leaves
  • ho:tanu:ya:xa’ná:t —unidentified flower that opens in the afternoon
  • ho:xú:t (Pt.) —unidentified medicinal plant with single thick stalk and broad leaves, used to treat diabetes
  • ho:yú:’ (Pt. (Ch. u:yú:h)) —unidentified vine with an edible fruit like a chayote
  • ho’x’é’wi’ —Manioc, Sweet Cassava (Yucca spp.)
  • i’si:ma’há:’ jú:ki’ —unidentified plant (poss. Polypodium aureum L.) used to cure internal injuries
  • i’staján kawa:yúj —Mistletoe Cactus (Rhipsalis baccifera (J. Miller) Steara), epiphytic cactus said to be good for the eyes
  • i’staján xta:wí —Narrow Strap Fern (Campyloneurum angustifolium (Sw.))
  • i’stzikí’ skauj —unidentified species of plant used to cure snakebites
  • i’xa’hasliwít ló’ho —unidentified plant that grows by the river; its flower looks like an earring
  • i’xa’ksa’sán tá’ho’ (Ch. (Pt. xaa’ksa’sát cha:lú:wa’)) —Great Lead Tree (Leucaena pulverolenta (Schl.) Benth)
  • i’xcha’nkát pá’xni’ —Spiral Ginger (Costus spp.), a cane of the ginger family used to cure afflictions of the kidneys and hepatitis
  • i’xla’hastapún skí:’ti’ —Chiggery Grapes (Tournefortia hirsutissima (L.)), fruit-bearing bush of the borage family
  • i’xli:ta:xaká chichí’ —Groundsel (Senecio barda-johannis DC)
  • i’xli:ta’lán misín —unidentified vine with dark leaves
  • i’xli:xto’hcha:lú:wa’ (Pt. (Ch. i’xli:xto’htá’ho’)) —Mullein Nightshade (Solanum verbascifolium), used to kill parasites and cure sores
  • i’xli:xto’htá’ho’ (Ch. (Pt. i’xli:xto’hcha:lú:wa’)) —Mullein Nightshade (Solanum verbascifolium), used to kill parasites and cure sores
  • i’xmakán misín —Cockscomb (Celosia cristata)
  • i’xmákwa’ ku’xaka’tzát —Evening Primrose (Oenothera rose Ait.), used as a cure for anger, injuries from being struck, and coughs; drunk in tea with purple bougainvillea and cinnamon
  • i’xma’hahá:’x wa’káx —unidentified plant (poss. Bauhinia divaricata L.), makes tea to treat kidney ailments
  • i’xma’haxtá’ha misín —Tiger’s Paw flower (Celosia cristota)
  • i’xma’hsín wa:’yá:’ —unidentified bush with sharp, curved spines
  • i’xma’htawilaná’ kí’wi’ (Ch. (Pt. i’xma’hto:laná’ kí’wi’)) —unidentified parasitic ephiphyte resembling a strangler fig
  • i’xma’hto:laná’ kí’wi’ (Pt. (Ch. i’xma’htawilaná’ kí’wi’)) —unidentified parasitic ephiphyte resembling a strangler fig
  • i’xpe’hén xkí’ta’ —unidentified vine (poss. Passiflora coriacea Juss.)
  • i’xpu:helhtzalánha’ a:’siwí’ —sepals, small bits of floral remnant at the bottom of a guava
  • i’xpu:ho’nú’ xtawá:’ —unidentified epiphyte with spiky leaves and a red flower which collects water
  • i’xtampí’n xta:n (Ch.) —unidentified fruit-bearing tree
  • i’xtanchiwíx mú:xni’ —Strangler Fig (Ficus glabrata H.B.K.), produces a fruit with a sticky white sap used as a glue to trap cicadas
  • i’xtántzi’ lú:wa’ —unidentified fern-like plant that grows close to the ground, used to cure espanto
  • i’xtililí:n ni:n —unidentified species of tree with white flowers
  • i’xwa:tzí:’ya’h ni:n —unidentified inedible berry
  • ja:ka:xká’j (Ch. (Pt. xka’j)) —Pineapple (Ananas comosus)
  • já:ka’ —Marmalade Fruit, Mamey, Sapote (Pouteria sapota); tree is believed not to produce the following year if a first-born child climbs it to pick fruit
  • ja:pát (Pt. (Ch. ja:pá’)) —unidentified plant used for pig or sheep fodder
  • ja’xaní:luj (Ch. (Pt. kaxánes)) —unidentified medicinal plant, produces a tuber
  • ji:náni’ —Eared Piper (Piper auritum), medicinal plant with large leaves and edible shoots and roots, has a minty flavour and is ground up and boiled; people come to the levantamiento of a child and drink a cupful of brew facing the sun; also used to cure espanto
  • jikwa:pá’hlhma’ —unidentified plant used to cure espanto
  • ka:ná: sé:’hnu’ —large variety of Plantain (Musa spp.)
  • ka:na:ma:yá:k —unidentified species of vine used in the construction of houses, etc.
  • ka:na:s’atán —yellow variety of Mombin or Hog Plum (Spondias purpurae)
  • ka:wí:n —Plantain (Musa paradisiaca)
  • kampichán (Ch.) —Tropical Plum (Spondias mombin L.)
  • kaxánes (Pt. (Ch. ja’xaní:luj)) —unidentified medicinal plant
  • ka’lámu’ —1) Cuijinicuil, Guaba, Cuban Laurel (Inga spuria), tree with an edible fruit used to shade coffee plants; 2) any bean-like seedpod
  • ká’pa’ —Angelica Tree (Dendropanax arboreus)
  • ka’psnapkí’wi’ —unidentified tree used to produce fibre for tying bundles, also used in ceremonies by shamans
  • kí:xni’ —Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum), used to make nests for chickens
  • ki’wis’atán —small, slightly bitter variety of yellow Plum (Prunus spp.)
  • kranpuyán (Sp. “framboyan”) —Royal Ponciana (Delonix regia), tree with bright red flowers and large inedible seed pods which blooms in late May and early June
  • ku:wák —Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides), used for adornment in the church at Christmas
  • ku:xkí’wi’ —unidentified species of Bamboo (Tribe Bambuseae), used to build houses
  • ku:yé:m —Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus)
  • kukatáj —Nectranda (Nectandra ambigens), tree that produces a small, avocado-like fruit
  • kuka’lhí:’ —Avocado (Persea americana)
  • kuká’t —Oak (Quercus spp.), its leaves are used for insect bites and to treat women post-partum
  • kúklhka’ —unidentified bush with edible red leaves, possibly a variety of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.)
  • kuksa’sán —plant of the Piper family (Piperaceae), possibly Peperomia lenticularis Dahlst., used in bean tamales, tastes like cilantro
  • kuku:nú’ —1) species of fruit-producing tree, possibly White Sapote (Casimiroa edulis); 2) the fruit of this tree
  • kukú:x —Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota)
  • kukxápu’ (Pt. (Ch. a’kxápu’)) —unidentified fruit-bearing tree, prefered for making fans for the temazcal
  • kulá:ntu’ (Sp. “cilantro”) —Coriander, Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)
  • kupáli’ (N. “copalli”) —copal, resin of a tree (Protium copal)
  • kuyá:m (Pt. (Ch. puyá:m)) —Linden Tree (Muntigia calabura)
  • kú’xi’ —Corn (Zea mays)
  • la:ha:’s’atán —small variety of red Plum (Prunus spp.)
  • la:xáx —1) Orange tree (Citrus sinensis); 2) fruit of this tree
  • lahatzí’ti’ kú’xi’ —black variety of Corn (Zea mays)
  • lalá:k —1) White Lead Tree, White Popinac, Wild Tamarind (Leucaena leucocephala spp.); 2) the edible pod of this tree
  • lala:kí’wi’ —unidentified tree with large black seeds and a bright red seedpod that curls around itself, used to shade coffee plants
  • lamu:náx (Sp. “limón”) —Lime (Citru spp.)
  • la’hachú’nu’ —unidentified plant with large, wrinkled leaves resembling the papatla
  • la’haha:’xkí’wi’ —unidentified species of tree used to shade coffee plants
  • li:ma’hchí:n —1) Canna, Indian Shot (Canna indica), plant with large leaves used for wrapping tamales; 2) any large leaf used to wrap tamales
  • li:siwín —1) tendrils (plant); 2) spool
  • li:s’é’hni’ —1) umbrella (used for shade); 2) Castor Bean Tree (Ricinus communis (L.)), its leaves were used as umbrellas
  • li:xkúli’ —1) Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.); 2) small tree (Lippia myriocephala), used to treat bad breath and infections; it hosts a caterpillar or grub which is cleaned and put into the mouths of the sick
  • ló:he:’ —Elephant Ears, Yautia (Xanthosoma robustum Schott), plant with large leaves used as umbrellas, the young leaves (tajná’) are boiled and eaten
  • lu:ma:xták —long, stringy algae that grows on rocks in fresh water
  • luló’hx —1) stringy endocarpal material that contains seeds of squash or melons; 2) rotten material inside of an old gourd
  • lute’he:kí’wi’ —Canela Guaica (Ocotea puberula), tree harvested for its wood
  • lhpauj (Ch. (Pt. lhpoj)) —Coyo (Persea schiedeana)
  • lhtakatsé:’hna’ (Ch. (Pt. lhtakatsé:’hnu’)) —False Plantain, Lobster Claw (Heliconia bihai), its leaves are used to wrap tamales
  • lhtu’ku:’tzáwa:’ —Spiny Amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus), used to treat kidney and urinary tract infections
  • lhtu’ku:’xa’ná:t —Mexican Prickly Poppy (Argemone mexicana)
  • lhtu’ku:’xtimanhá:h —unidentified spiny plant that produces burrs
  • lhtu’kunu:xtimanhá:h —unidentified spiny plant that produces burrs
  • lhtu’ku’ni:’yá: xtimanhá:h (Ch.) —unidentified spiny plant that produces burrs
  • lh’oholú:n —unidentified vine that produces edible fruit
  • lh’o’ho’lú:n —unidentified wild fruit the size of an apricot, grows on vines and has a hard exterior shell, eaten boiled (similar to a palm fruit)
  • ma:lakasílh —unidentified small brown mushroom that lives near the Zebrawood Tree (Astronium fraxinifolium)
  • ma:nít —Wild Mexican Yam (Dioscorea composita Hemls.), a toxic tuber used to stun fish
  • má:nku’ (Sp. “mango”) —Mango (Mangifera indica L.)
  • ma:tanhelhasán —unidentified large tree with inedible nut
  • ma:tankajkí’wi’ —Whiteball Acacia (Acacia angustissima)
  • ma:tántzi’ —species of Drymary plant (Drymaria gracilis Cham.)
  • ma:xana:lhtú’ku’ —Mimosa (Mimosa pudica L.), creeping plant with double leaves that fold up when touched
  • ma:xana:pá’hlhma’ —Mimosa (Mimosa albida Humb et Boupl.), creeping plant with double leaves that fold up when touched, used to treat ailments of the eyes
  • malhtanku’xán —undientified species of tree, possibly the White Ramoon (Trophis racemosa Urban L.)
  • mansa:nás (Sp. “manzana”) —Apple (Malus domestica)
  • mantá’j —Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas), local varieties tend to have purple flesh
  • ma’hachujpi:kí’wi’ —unidentified species of tree
  • ma’hachulhchúlh —Stonecrop, Orpine (Sedum dendroideum), a plant with seedpods that rattle when they are dry. Children play with the flowers, they blow into them and pop them with their hands or throw them into the fire. It is also chewed to cure toothaches, buccal infections, and chest congestion, and to cure rashes when ground, mixed with oil and spread on as a plaster. The leaf is roasted and used as a cure for bed-wetting.
  • ma’halhalhát —Dodder, Witches’ Hair (Cuscuta spp.), used to cure espanto and hepatitis
  • ma’hxaxát kí’wi’ —Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla)
  • ma’lhú:’k —large species of Bamboo (possibly Bambusa guadua (Humb. and Bonpl.) or Guadua aculeata Rujor.)
  • misini:kí’wi’ —unidentified species of tree used for building houses
  • mohó:t —1) Coyol Palm (Scheelea liebmannii Becc.); 2) fruit of this tree
  • mu:hó:’x’a:’ (Ch.) —unidentified vine with a trumpet-shaped flower, used to make tumplines
  • mu:nchu’lu:’xa’ná:t —unidentified flower that grows in swampy ground
  • mu:wáj (Pt. (Ch. mu:wáuj)) —Wild Petunia (Ruellia spp.), used in bathes to cure espanto
  • mustulú —Black Nightshade (Solanum spp.), eaten as greens
  • nípxi’ —Squash (Cucurbita spp.)
  • pá:la: —unidentified tree whose bark is used to cure stomachaches and as a purgative
  • pa:lulu:pá’hlhma’ —Phylodendron (Phylodendron spp.), used for cleansing ceremonies and in witchcraft
  • pá:pas —unidentified fruit of vine the size and shape of a potato, greyish with a crest like a rooster’s
  • pa:xtu:xa’ná:t —Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima)
  • panamá:k —1) Cotton (Gossypium spp.); 2) cotton (material, fabric)
  • parákx —unidentified tree that produces a seedpod which pops when it is burned
  • pa’chxlámu (Ch. (Pt. pe’hxlámu)) —unidentified epiphytic vine
  • pa’hlha:tkalá’mu’ —unidentified tree that grows a small seedpod
  • pá’hlhcha’ —Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • pá’hlhma’ —1) leaves, undergrowth, foliage; 2) Marijuana (Cannabis sativa)
  • pe’hxlámu (Pt. (Ch. pa’chxlámu)) —unidentified epiphytic vine
  • pilú:tzi’ (arc.; Pt.) —1) Magnolia, Heartflower Tree (Talauma mexicana), used in the voladores dance; 2) flower of this tree, dried and ground for atole
  • pisí:s —unidentified large-leafed plant that produces a sweet edible tuber resembling a dark-blue parsnip, possibly a variety of Elephant Ear (Xanthosoma violaceum)
  • pi’n —Chili (Capsicum L. spp.)
  • pi’ni:kú’chu’ —Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)
  • pu:chi’chini:’xa’ná:t —1) unidentified flowering tree with large yellow blossoms; 2) Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
  • pu:chú:t —Kapok Tree, Ceiba (Ceiba pentandra)
  • pu:ho’tnu:x’atán —unidentified plant, used to cure sores and itches
  • pu:knút (Ch. (Pt. pu:kutu:ma:yák)) —Beggar Ticks (Bidens spp.), vine with purple flower
  • pu:kutu:ma:yák (Pt. (Ch. pu:knút)) —Beggar Ticks (Bidens spp.), vine with purple flowers
  • pu:luló’hx —1) stringy endocarpal material that contains seeds of squash or melons; 2) rotten material inside of an old gourd
  • pu:lhu:ni:xkú:la’ —flowering plant (Verbesina punctata) of the aster family, used to adorn statues of saints in the church
  • pu:m —Copal Tree (Bursera spp.), source of copal and an aromatic wood, both employed in witchcraft
  • pu:ma:pa:jú:n —1) Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum), used to make nests for chickens; 2) domesticated bird’s nest, nesting box
  • pu:skuyún —small tree (Verbesina virgata Cav.) with hollow branches, used for roasting and smoking meat and for treating stomachaches and dysentery
  • pú:xni’ —Turi (Parmentiera edulis D.C.), tree with a gourd-like fruit, boiled and used to treat kidney disorders
  • pu:xulu’kwá:t (Pt. (Ch. pu:xulu’wá:’h)) —wild variety of Passion Fruit (Passiflora spp.)
  • pu:x’aa’hati:láh —small flowering variety of Coral Bean Tree (Erythrina spp.)
  • pu:yú:m —1) flower of the corn plant; 2) small unidentified fly that lives on corn, said to change into cueltas (larva of the Neotropical Silkmoth Arsenura armida)
  • puksnanka’kán —Papalo, Odora (Porophyllum coloratum), edible plant
  • pumarósa (Sp. “pomarrosa”) —Rose-Apple Tree (Eugenia jambos L.)
  • pusama:xa’ná:t (Ch.) —Milkweed (Asclepias curassavica)
  • puyá:m (Ch. (Pt. kuyá:m)) —Linden Tree (Muntigia calabura)
  • pú’klhni’ —Croton Tree (Croton panamensis (Klotsch) Muell.), its sap is used to disinfect wounds
  • pu’ksa:ma:yák —unidentified, foul-smelling vine
  • pú’ksni’ —Spanish Cedar (Cedrela mexicana)
  • sankwán pá’hlhma’ —Groundsel (Senecio barda-johannis DC)
  • santakru:xa’ná:t —species of Orchid (Oncidium cebolleta)
  • santi:yáj (arc; Sp. “sandía”) —Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)
  • sapu:la:pá’hlhma’ —unidentified plant used to kill parasites
  • sapu:láx (Sp. “cebolla”) —Onion (Allium cepa)
  • sé:’hna’ (Ch. (Pt. sé:’hnu’)) —1) Plantain, Banana (Musa spp.); 2) vul. penis
  • ska:kna:’xa’ná:t (Ch. (Pt. xka:ki:’xa’ná:t)) —species of Orchid (Oncidium cebolleta)
  • skukú:jnu’ —unidentified plant with a large leaf used to wrap meat in
  • skulu:já:ka’ —Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota)
  • skulu:kí’wi’ (Pt. (Ch. slulu:kí’wi’)) —species of tree, possibly (Amphyterygium adstringens)
  • slulu:kí’wi’ (Ch. (Pt. skulu:kí’wi’)) —unidentified species of tree (possibly Amphyterygium adstringens)
  • slulua’mpán —unidentified vine with a square cross-section, used for building weirs, etc., as it resists being submerged for long periods and continues to grow
  • sluluwáka’ (Ch. (Pt. s’o’luwáka’)) —Mexican Mistletoe (Phoradendron spp.), small, fruit-bearing parasitic vine, spread in the excrement of birds
  • smukú’ku’ malhát —unidentified species of mushroom
  • sna’púj (Pt. (Ch. sná’pu’)) —unidentified tree (possibly Simmondsia chinensis) that produces a berry that can be made into soap
  • snunkúunidentified fruit-bearing vine (poss. Cuscuta corymbosa R. & P.), cut open to obtain water and used to hang the cribs of newborns
  • sta:m —unidentified vine with an inedible tuber boiled and used to make glue
  • sta:wi:yák (Pt. (Ch. astabiyát); N. “iztauhyatl”) —Mexican Wormwood (Artemisia mexicana), medicinal plant used to cure espanto
  • stapún —Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
  • stapunkí’wi’ —Wild Tambran, Wild Tamarind, Blackbead Tree (Pithecellobium arboreum (L.) Urban), its wood is used for house and roof posts
  • sta’ját —1) its resin, its sap, its juice (plant); 2) a candle’s dripping wax
  • stinkilín —unidentified species of small tree that produces an edible pod
  • su:ksú:k (Pt.) —unidentified plant with spiked flowers and large, long leaves; it is planted to as a fence and its flowers are eaten in soup
  • suwá:lh —1) Black Sapote (Diospyros digyna); 2) mole on skin
  • súyu’ —Morning Glory (Ipomoea spp.), the vine is eaten
  • s’atán —Red Mombin, Hog Plum (Spondias purpurea)
  • s’é’hti’ —unidentified vine with solid, heart-shaped leaves, used by shaman to wrap chicks in before burying them alive
  • s’ohtamá’h —unidentified plant that ejects its seeds when they are mature
  • s’o’luwáka’ (Pt. (Ch. sluluwáka’)) —Mexican Mistletoe (Phoradeudron spp.), small, fruit-bearing parasitic vine, spread in the excrement of birds
  • tachá’ni’ —1) crop, plant one has planted; 2) Chayote (Sechium edule)
  • tahí’si’ —unidentified vine used for tying things and in the construction of houses
  • tajtú:t (Pt.) —unidentified species of plant (possibly Gronovia scandens L.) that has fine spines on its leaves that cause rashes
  • talá:x’a’ —unidentified tree with a long, wide seedpod
  • talhtzi:kí’wi’ —unidentified species of tree that produces an edible, nut-like fruit
  • tálhtzi’ —1) Squash (Cucurbita spp.) seed; 2) (ni) any seed, nut, or small, hard-bodied fruit
  • tampu:stí’li’ (Ch.) —unidentified species of fruit-bearing bush
  • tanchu:lúkx —unidentified medicinal plant used to cure pimples, boils, wounds, stomachaches, and diabetes
  • tanchúchu’ —unidentified species of thorny tree
  • tanhólu’ —unidentified blackberry-like fruit
  • tanka’pá:s —unidentified Fern, possibly Alsophilia firma, whose fronds are used to cover nurseries for seedlings
  • tantá’j —Cut-Leaf Philodendron, Ceriman (Monstera deliciosa)
  • tantu:klábo (Pt.) —large unidentified mushroom with thick stem that lives under the Tambran Tree (Pithecellobium arboreum (L.) Urban)
  • tapi:s’a:na:’pá’hlhma’ —unidentified species of plant, used to treat wounds
  • tasiwi:kalá’mu’ —tree (Cojoba arborea (L.) Britton et Rose) with a seedpod that grows twisted like a corkscrew
  • taxwákni’ —unidentified species of plant whose root is used to stimulate lactation in new mothers and whose leaves are used to bathe mother and child for the first six post-partum days
  • ta’sú’nTropical Birch (Bursera simaruba), its leaves are used to prepare bathes to reduce fever
  • ta’su’ni:ma:yá:k —unidentified vine whose sap causes burns, its sap was used for scarring and tattooing
  • to:nhchi’chí:’ —unidentified species of tree that produces a papaya-like fruit
  • to’hxí:wa’ —unidentified herb boiled to make tea to cure fever, hepatitis, and hangovers
  • tu: le:henhasta’jkán —unidentified plant whose root is used to treat scorpion stings and snakebite; its sap can irritate the skin and may cause nosebleeds
  • tumátlh (N. “tomatl”) —Tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica)
  • turututút —unidentified species of trumpet-shaped flower (poss. Brugmansia & candida Pens.)
  • tza:wá’m —stalk of the corn plant
  • tzalalá:n —Corn (Zea mays) grown outside the Necaxa Valley
  • tzankí’wi’ —its stem (of chili, fruit)
  • tzáwa:’ —Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.)
  • tza’jpála’ —unidentified species of tree whose bark is used to cure stomachaches and as a purgative
  • tza’ká:t —1) Gumtree (Castilla elastica), its sap is used as a compress for asthma and to waterproof cloth; 2) rubber; 3) slingshot
  • tza’tza:xa’ná:t —Milkweed (Asclepias curassavica), said to cure hemorrhoids when carried in one’s pocket
  • tza’tzana:lhtú’ku’ —Mimosa (Mimosa pudica L.), creeping plant with double leaves that fold up when touched
  • tzi:’tzi:’li:kí’wi’ —Cuacuite Tree (Gliricida sepium)
  • tzi’ki:’kí’wi’ (Ch. (Pt. tzi’ki:’papáya)) —unidentified small yellow papaya-like fruit about the size of a pomegranite
  • tzi’ntzi:pá’hlhcha’ —cuatomate, small, tomato-like wild fruit (possibly Solanum glaucescens)
  • tzi’sa:kí’wi’ —tree that flowers at night (poss. Cestrum nocturnum L.)
  • tzi’tzí:ks —unidentified species of Cycad (Ord. Cycadales) with light, strong wood used for house posts
  • tzi’waná’ —Velvet Bean, Picapica (Mucuna pruriens), vine that produces a pod with spines that cause itch
  • tzo:hó:h —Piper (Piper berlandieri C. DC.), tea is brewed from its leaves and used to cure upset stomach and diarrhea, and to burn fat
  • tzo’hoscháuj (Ch. (Pt. tzo’hoschój)) —1) one’s kneecap; 2) (n) unidentified vine with a large inedible tuber
  • tzó’hsma’ —unidentified large-leafed plant that produces a sweet edible tuber (possibly Taro Colocasia esculenta)
  • tzu:ks —unidentified vine used for tying, building, and hauling heavy loads
  • tzujpí:n —1) Bullhorn Acacia (Acacia cornigera), a type of tree with large spines that hosts a species of biting Ant (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea); 2) the spines of this tree
  • tzu’tzo’ho:sé:’hna’ (Ch. (Pt. tzu’tzo’ho:sé:’hnu’)) —Red Banana (Musa spp.)
  • tzu’tzú’ni’ —Berlandier Acacia, Guajillo Acacia (Acacia berlandieri), tree used for firewood
  • u:yú:h (Ch. (Pt. ho:yú:’)) —unidentified vine with an edible fruit like a chayote
  • u:’nu:kí’wi’ —unidentified species of tree
  • ukúm —Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)
  • watzí:’ya’ —White Maya (Miconia argentea (Sw.) DC.), produces an edible berry
  • wa’tu’wá:s —unidentified species of tree that grows small fruit
  • wa’tzápu’Rubus adenotrichus, plant with a small blackberry-like fruit
  • wa’xá’xa’ —tree (Pseudolmedia oxyphyllaria (Donn)) of the mulberry family
  • wa’yantawáka’ —unidentified species of woody parasitic plant
  • xaa’ksa’sát cha:lú:wa’ (Pt. (Ch. i’xa’ksa’sán tá’ho’)) —Great Lead Tree (Leucaena pulverolenta (Schl.) Benth.)
  • xacha:ta’ka’lán xkú’hni’ —unidentified species of edible vine
  • xachalánha’ xa’ná:t —Impatience (Impatiens balsamina (L.))
  • xala’há’lha’ ka:ná: sé:’hnu’ —type of large Plantain (Musa spp.)
  • xali:chu’kutjá:ka’ —unidentified fleshy fruit with a small pit
  • xasmatá’ha’ a’hasmá:lh —unidentified species of creeping plant
  • xaspi’líli’ a’hasmá:lh —variety of Dayflower (Commelina spp.), used in ceremonies to placate the dead
  • xastalánha’ a’hasmá:lh —plant (Ancilema pulchella), crushed and used to cure irritation of the eyes
  • xastalánha’ malhát —unidentified species of edible mushroom that lives on the Corkwood Tree (Heliocarpus appendiculatus)
  • xastalánha’ tzáwa:’ —light-coloured variety of Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.)
  • xatza’pá’ha’ cha’nkát —a variety of soft Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • xatzu’tzó’ho’ tzáwa:’ —red variety of Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.)
  • xax’a’tánh kú’xi’ —wine-red variety of Corn (Zea mays)
  • xa’hxa:’hmu:lá:tu’ —unidentified species of plant with a large, white edible tuber, possibly a species of Yam (Dioscorea spp.)
  • xa’ná:t kí’wi’ —1) Magnolia, Heartflower Tree (Talauma mexicana), used in the voladores dance; 2) flower of this tree, dried and ground for atole
  • xi:pa:’kí’wi’ —unidentified species of tree that grows seeds favoured by birds
  • xí:pa’ —Yellow Mombin, Hog Plum, Spanish Plum (Spondias mombin L.)
  • xi:pu:a:’staká:t (Pt. (Ch. xi:pu:ta:’staká:t)) —Willow (Salix bonplandiana)
  • xi:pú:t —Willow (Salix bonplandiana)
  • xi:pu:ta:’staká:t (Ch. (Pt. xi:pu:a:’staká:t)) —Willow (Salix bonplandiana)
  • xiwi’hxa’ná:t —unidentified species of tree with large pink flowers
  • xka:ki:’xa’ná:t (Pt. (Ch. ska:kna:’xa’ná:t)) —species of Orchid (Oncidium cebolleta)
  • xka:nixkí’wi’ —unidentified species of tree resembling a poplar (possibly Cordia megalantha)
  • xkaják (Pt. (Ch. xkaját)) —Moctezuma Pine (Pinus moctezumae); its resin was burned for lighting
  • xka’j (Pt. (Ch. ja:ka:xká’j)) —Pineapple (Ananas comosus)
  • xke’jék (Pt. (Ch. xke’jét)) —Epazote, Wormseed, Mexican Tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), edible herb of the goosefoot family
  • xke’jekpá’hlhma’ (Pt. (Ch. xke’jetpá’hlhma’)) —unidentified species of plant, its leaves are used to wrap bean tamales
  • xke’jét (Ch. (Pt. xke’jék)) —Epazote, Wormseed, Mexican Tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), edible herb of the goosefoot family
  • xke’jetpá’hlhma’ (Ch. (Pt. xke’jekpá’hlhma’)) —unidentified species of plant, its leaves are used to wrap bean tamales
  • xkú:la’ —Southern Sunflower (Tithonia tubaeformis)
  • xkú’ni’ —unidentified edible plant that resembles rhubarb
  • xpa’yá’h —Scratchbush, Cow-Itch, Ortiga (Urera baccifera), spiny plant that causes an itchy rash when touched
  • xpulh —Verdolga, Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)
  • xti:lanhá:’ (Pt. (Ch. asiyé:ti’)) —Castor Bean Tree (Ricinus communis (L.)), its leaves are ground with tomato, baking powder, and fat and used as plaster applied to a patient’s stomach to cure fevers
  • xtililí:n —1) Shaving Brush Tree (Pseudobombax ellipticum (Kunth) Dugand); 2) the flower of this tree
  • xtimanhá:h —1) plant (Acaena elongata) whose burrs were put in people’s hair during Mardi Gras; boiled and used to cure vaginal flux and to prevent miscarriages; 2) any burr or plant that produces burrs
  • xti’lili’xa’ná:t —1) Shaving Brush Tree (Bombax spp.); 2) the flower of this tree
  • xtulunu:’ma:yá:k —unidentified vine whose sap causes burns, its sap was used for scarring and tattooing
  • xtúyu’ —unidentified species of plant that is fed to horses
  • xu:nú:’k —fibres made by soaking the bark of the Corkwood Tree (Heliocarpus appendiculatus) for four days in water, used for making rope
  • xu:nu:’kí’wi’ —Corkwood Tree (Heliocarpus appendiculatus)
  • xu:nu:’kli:pálhna’ —Broomjute, Sida (Sida paniculatum L.), a plant used to make brooms
  • xu:nu:’kmalhát —unidentified edible white mushroom that grows on Moctezuma Pine (Pinus moctezuma) trees
  • xu:pali:’kí’wi’ —unidentified species of tree whose bark is pounded into paper and used in witchcraft
  • xu:’na:pá’hlhma’ —unidentified bitter herb, said to host ticks
  • xu’ku’na:ntzín —Oak (Quercus spp.), its leaves are used to treat insect bites and to bathe women post-partum
  • xwi:’kwá’h (Ch.) —unidentified species of plant with a hard, plastic-like flower
  • x’a’ta:ma:yá:k —unidentified species of vine used for basketry, weaving hats, and to make gopher traps
  • x’a’ti:yá:lh —species of False Plantain (Heliconia spp.)
  • x’óli’ —1) Giant Reed, Spanish Cane (Arundo donax L.); 2) any hollow stick or piece of bamboo
  • x’oyutkí’wi’ —Canela Guaica (Ocotea puberula), tree harvested for its wood