Congratulations to Orlando’s Susan Brown, recently appointed Canada Research Chair (Tier I) in Collaborative Digital Scholarship at the University of Guelph. In other news, Laura Mandell includes Susan Brown on her short list of DH leaders in her interview with Melissa Dinsman on “The Digital in the Humanities” for the Los Angeles Review of Books. Mandell observes, “the major digital humanists in my field are women . . . Read more
What is Orlando?
The Orlando Project is an experiment in the integration of text and technology. It has designed and continues to enhance digital tools to harness the power of computers for critical literary and historical research. The project's constantly expanding and improving storehouse of knowledge about women's lives and writings, the Orlando textbase itself, is rendered uniquely searchable and sortable by its encoding. Its widening of the knowledge base in cultural history goes together with the training and professional development of generations of students.
The project began when Patricia Clements, Isobel Grundy, and Susan Brown proposed to research and write a much-needed literary history and to deliver it electronically. It was a bold move: such an undertaking had not previously been attempted in kind, scale, or complexity, and at this stage in the development of humanities computing – the mid 1990s – it was by no means clear either that text encoding (markup) could produce meaningful results in so complex a field as literary history or even that an extensively encoded text could be effectively deployed and accessed on the internet. Nevertheless, Brown, Clements, and Grundy, traditionally trained and hitherto non-computational professors of English, set out to create a multidisciplinary team which could both produce a major history of women’s writing in the British Isles and conceive and build this as a digital history.
The Orlando Project is collaborative and multidisciplinary. The venture at its core brings together literary scholars, digital humanists, and computing scientists, and from the beginning the team has benefited from the generous collaboration of distinguished digital humanists from across Canada and internationally. Orlando research is cross-cultural, and student colleagues – of whom the Project has trained upwards of 85, and rising – learn about both editorial and archival research, and document analysis and markup. Professors and student researchers alike are excited by the experimental environment.
The history the team built is the product of massive scholarly research, of Orlando’s tagsets (built in-house), and of the Orlando production system. Orlando: Women’s Writing in the British Isles from the Beginnings to the Present was published online by Cambridge University Press in 2006 at orlando.cambridge.org/. It is an unprecedented work of literary scholarship. Not a book, though in length the equivalent of about 80 scholarly books, and not a digital edition of an existing text, it is a richly searchable textbase that caters to the individual research interests of readers/users. Orlando’s unique encoding system enables users to search and recombine detailed accounts of authors’ lives and writing careers, plus extensive contextual material in a way that has never before been possible.
The Orlando Project team continues to explore ways in which the digital can enrich the textual, and its technologies have enabled other innovative projects. CWRC, the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory (www.cwrc.ca), led by Susan Brown and built on Orlando as a web-based service-oriented platform, combining a repository and a toolkit, empowers scholars through new ways of pursuing research into Canadian writing and culture.
Searching in Orlando
The first three entry points to Orlando are People (for author entries singly or in groups, and other names), Chronologies (timelines by word, date, or tag), and Tag Search. Tag Search offers picklists of tags, with explanatory diagrams showing relationships between tags. This starburst represents the chief tags in the Production section of the Writing schema developed by Orlando. Some of these have subtags not represented here. For example, the Mode of Publication tag can be narrowed to subtags about subscription, or limited edition, etc.
Orlando 2.0: our mission statement
Our new phase of activity, Orlando 2.0, continues the work of the Orlando Project, which recently marked its first 20 years of activity in digital literary history. We launch this phase in 2017 because our new production environment in the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory (cwrc.ca) allows us to undertake substantially new practices in our collaborative workflow and the tools that we can offer for using the textbase for research.
On the production side, we are expanding our base of contributors. For technical reasons, Orlando was developed almost exclusively by scholars and graduate students at the University of Alberta and University of Guelph. As we revise and create new project materials, Orlando 2.0 will engage with a larger, international group of experts: external contributors working in women’s writing and in digital humanities, as well as both an advisory board and an editorial board. These developments will allow us to keep Orlando up to date with new scholarship. Moreover, while Orlando has always been committed to principles of diversity in its textbase content, we imagine that this more heterogeneous base of advisors, editors, and contributors will change the textbase in valuable ways. We are particularly committed to increasing the racial and ethnic diversity of the entries in all historical periods, and we are committed to increasing the coverage of contemporary writers.
On the technical side, Orlando 2.0 is committed to ongoing development of new ways to access, analyze, and present feminist literary research. CWRC will be offering new interfaces to allow users creative and productive ways to explore the textbase, and CWRC will also provide a means for the project’s researchers to experiment with new tools for Orlando.
Orlando’s unique contribution to feminist digital humanities has been to encode relationality an intersectionality in women’s writing and its contexts. Going forward, the Orlando/CWRC team will be focusing on linked data and collaborative systems, which we see as having great potential for more aggregation, for different kinds of exploration, and for bringing data from different projects into conversation with each other. In short, Orlando 2.0 allows us to be more collaborative and more diverse, and to develop and use leading-edge tools on an ever-expanding and dynamic textbase. We undertake Orlando 2.0 as a means of building on the feminist project of Orlando.
More about Orlando, onscreen
New Directions/Directors for Orlando
We are delighted to announce that Corrinne Harol has undertaken the position of Literary Director of the Orlando Project.
Dr. Harol (PhD UCLA), Associate Professor in the Department of English and Film Studies, University of Alberta, specializes in Restoration and eighteenth-century literature and culture. Areas of research interest include the intersections of literary, scientific, political, and religious discourses; intellectual history and critical theory; feminist theory and gender studies. She is the author of Enlightened Virginity in Eighteenth-Century Literature as well as journal articles and book chapters on eighteenth century literature.
Corrinne Harol joins Technical Director Susan Brown and Research Director Isobel Grundy. This shared direction of the project is part of the shift to a new phase of Orlando, announced at the Digital Diversity conference as Orlando 2.0. Orlando 2.0 sees the project moving in 2016 to welcoming contributions from scholars worldwide through a new online collaborative research platform.
Orlando’s ongoing work include twice-annual updates to the textbase, each of which comprises ten new entries plus many revisions that reflect new publications, new attributions, new contradictions. Current and former project members are contributing to the upcoming Digital Diversity essay collection, which will be published online and in print. Technical work includes developing prototypes for exploring the project’s materials in new ways, and producing a set of linked open data based on Orlando. Recent studies of Orlando are available in DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly and ada: a journal of gender, new media, and technology.
Orlando in the Media
Orlando’s Design Research
Explore in Orlando
30 April 1615
John Donne preached To the Queen at Greenwich, his earliest surviving sermon.
30 April 1695
Thomas Betterton, Elizabeth Barry, and Anne Bracegirdle gave the first performance of their breakaway Actors' Company, premiering Congreve's Love for Love.They had petitioned in December against the managers (Christopher Rich and Sir Thomas Skipwith) of the United Company, now dissolved. They opened at a new theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields to riotous applause. Love for Love enjoyed a long run.But the comic actor Thomas Doggett, playing Ben the sailor, ad-libbed freely in words the author never wrote, thus providing a harvest for informers for the Society for the Reformation of Manners and for Jeremy Collier's Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage, published in April 1698. Congreve in turn replied to Collier the same year in Amendments of Mr. Collier's false and imperfect citations.
30 April 1709
A proclamation against gambling and acting at the traditional, popular, rowdy May Fair (held annually north of Piccadilly in London) caused the event to collapse and the custom to wither.The fair left its name to the area now known as Mayfair. The milk-women who sold their wares around the streets were some of the last in London to keep up the May-day customs of garlands, music, and dancing.
- 30 April 1615
May 6, 2016 ·
In early April, Margaret Atwood delivered the 10th annual Henry Kreisel Lecture, sponsored by the University of Alberta’s Canadian Literature Centre/Centre de Littérature Canadienne (CLC). Her lecture, “The Burgess Shale: The Canadian Literary Landscape of the 1960s,” will be broadcast by CBC Radio’s Ideas later this year. Here is Atwood at the event with the Orlando Project’s Patricia Clements (right) and the CLC’s Marie Carrière (centre).
April 25, 2016 ·
NEW AUTHOR ENTRIES
- Mary Mollineux, c. 1651 – 1696: A north-country Quaker who directed her poetry to literary as well as religious ends.
- Alison Cockburn, 1713 – 1794: She has the place in the story of the Scottish ballad revival and wrote other occasional poems, letters, and memoirs.
- Ann Thicknesse, 1737 – 1824: wife of a writer notorious for quarrels and shady dealing. Her . . . Read more
March 8, 2016 ·
For March, Women’s History Month, Orlando is open access.
User id womenshistory2016
Because of the ways in which the extensive data can be mined or formulated, Orlando offers the best access to information on British women writers and serves as a model for similar databases that will supplant printed literary dictionaries, encyclopedias, and handbooks (187).
The experiment is unquestionably a successful one. Orlando‘s most obvious utility, as with the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, involves the ability to turn to its entries on more than 800 individual British women writers for specific biographical or bibliographical information. For example, Orlando‘s entry on Jane Austen or Frances Burney is in many ways more useful than the ODNB’s: it supplies more specific dates and employs a hierarchical structure that enables the reader to jump easily to specific portions of each entry. . . . Orlando, in that sense, offers one-stop biographical and book-historical shopping. Orlando’s unique value is in providing ‘materials [that] are capable of a high degree of interaction.’ To be sure, one can do a full-text search in the ODNB for the word ‘antiquarian’ or ‘bluestocking’ and come up with some surprising and valuable results, but in Orlando, the ability to quickly investigate not only such keywords but also circles of writers—particularly by tracing connections among individual writers (male and female)—is unprecedented. One can learn not only about interpersonal connections and literary influences but also about locations, events, occupations, genres, birth position, and other categories that link British women writers (and a smaller selection of male or non-British women writers) to each other.
Two books under review in this essay: William McCarthy’s Anna Letitia Barbauld: Voice of the Enlightenment and Nicholas D. Smith’s The Literary Manuscripts and Letters of Hannah More.
Devoney Looser, “Enlightenment Women’s Voices”, Huntington Library Quarterly 73:2 (June 2010), 295-302. (Available from JSTOR).
Wernimont takes Orlando, together with Women Writers Online, as “exemplary instances of digital literary scholarship.” Orlando’s DTDs or interpretive markup, she writes, are tools which are generative and transformative, not merely declarative. They "can be read as paratextual with respect to the absent primary texts — the literary texts written by women that Orlando articles discuss. Consequently, we can see this markup as generating a feminist and materialist hermeneutic space through which a reading of primary texts is enabled.”
Jacqueline Wernimont, “Whence Feminism? Assessing Feminist Interventions in Digital Literary Archives” (Digital Humanities Quarterly, 7: 1 (2013), http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/7/1/000156/000156.html#fraiman2008.
[H]igh standard of biographical and historiographical interpretation and writing . . . an irrefutable confirmation that any one life (and life writing) is always a network of relations, locations, events, and categories (Booth 728).
Orlando isn’t just all about any woman writer who ever had anything to do with the British Isles, and some affiliated writers, or about the historical context for these longstanding traditions. It’s also all about markup. It’s about demystifying digital research for the scholar who might secretly still believe technology belongs to non-humanists or to nerdy men. On the contrary, markup is man-womanly in a Woolfian sense, some sort of cross-dressing of logic, poetry, sewing, and architecture. No longer romanticizing infinite possibilities, the digital community acknowledges that coding is interpretive (729).
[T]he possibilities offered by “interpretive tagging,”… enable the information about an individual writer’s life and work to be searched by time, place, genre and occupation. One can look at all the authors who were nuns or librarians; who wrote agit-prop, anthems or art criticism, who had links with Scarborough or South Africa. The biographers can also be interrogated in multiple further ways. Such options enable kinds of research quite impossible in a book. But they also indirectly help generate alternatives to more “mainstream” perspectives (50).