Inshad Dini = religious hymnody
- Ibtihalat. Performed by Shaykh Taha al-Fashni, probably the most famous mubtahil of the 20th c. Here
ibtihalat is based entirely on poetry. The recording is different from the dawn-prayer style heard above. From Sono Cairo 67028/601.
- Tawashih diniyya. Performed by Shaykh Muhammad al-Fayyumi and his bitana (chorus). Tawashih
involve alternation between solo and chorus; the former improvisatory, the latter more precomposed and quasi-metric. From Sono Cairo 75113/461.
- Mawlid. Listen to a typical mawlid and read the associated album notes. The mawlid is a celebration of the Prophet Muhammad's birth, including devotional singing; it is frequently recited in the mystical orders of Islam, the turuq Sufiyya - in this case the Hamidiyya Shadhiliyya order of Egypt.
New mediated inshad
With the advent of mass-media, combined with a more conservative attitude towards inshad generally, a new more broadly popular style of mediated inshad has emerged. The more conservative strand is typified by this video clip by Kuwaiti Mishary Rashid. Shaykh Mishary Rashid al-Afasy, b. 1976, is a Kuwaiti who also performs Qur'anic recitation.
Another famous inshad performer is the British Sami Yusuf, who performs in both English and Arabic; he is of Azeri descent, and trained in traditional music of Azerbayjan, a genre in which his father excelled. In one album (My Umma) he scrupulously avoided use of musical instruments, but later made use of them as in this clip, though not without invoking criticism. Here he deliberately makes use of several languages, emphasizing unity in the Muslim Ummah.
- Inshad Dini and Aghani Diniyya in Twentieth Century Egypt: A Review of Styles, Genres, and Available Recordings, an article from MESA Bulletin