Arab Modernity and popular musical transformations: 5 themes

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Westernization and colonization: sounds of the 20th century, and the decline of tarab

Rise of commodification and music media

Shifts in representation of women: the male gaze in music, veiling and unveiling...

Bifurcations: Religious/secular; Sufi/Salafi

  • "Shaykh" vs "Effendi"
  • Decline of religious training for singers
  • Religious genres

Nationalism, pan-Arabism, and the media

  • Benedict Anderson and communities "imagined" via mass media (19th c print capitalism)
  • 19th c Arab nationalism and the first "Arab music" (via media)
  • Nasser's Egypt-centric pan-Arabism (top down, ideological), and associated music (Abdel Halim, Umm Kulthum)
  • satellite revolution's new pan-Arabism (bottom up, capitalistic, distributed production)

The span of pan-Arab media Satellite.jpg