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Manuscript Studies
Medieval and Early Modern

Bibliography: Manuscript Production


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Alexander, J[onathan] J[ames] G[raham]. Medieval Illuminators and their Methods of Work. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Alexander, J[onathan] J[ames] G[raham]. The Decorated Letter. New York: G. Braziller, 1978. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Arn, Mary-Jo. The Poet's Notebook: The Personal Manuscript of Charles d'Orléans (Paris, BnF MS fr. 25458). [Book with CD-ROM.] Texts and Transitions 3. Turnhout: Brepols, 2008. [Publisher's description: "This study of Charles d'Orléans's personal manuscript of his poetry--the first in nearly a century--paves the way not only for a new edition of the duke's œuvre (by Mary-Jo Arn, John Fox, and R. Barton Palmer) but for a new view of it. Following the first complete modern description of the manuscript, this study reconstructs the history of the manuscript, copying layer by copying layer. Codicological observations supplemented with palaeographical, historical, art-historical, and textual information reveal the approximate sequence of the manuscript's composition, which in turn allows a re-dating of the manuscript and some of the poems in it. Charles saw lyric form differently than did his predecessors and contemporaries, a view made manifest in the poet's own numbering of his poems. He mixed his complaintes with ballades and his rondels with chansons, each pair of forms in a numbered series, but never presenting the longer alongside the shorter forms. The analysis of the manuscript's construction corrects the current physical disorder of the later chansons and rondels, as well as that of the 'En la forest de longue actente' series (including the lyric omitted from the standard edition) and re-evaluates the handful of English poems in the manuscript. In the end, we come to understand the relationship between the visual 'messiness' of the manuscript and the poet's strong concept of lyric order. The technical aspects of the study are clarified by many tables and fascimile pages; the interactive CD contains an index of first lines that can be sorted in various ways to reveal a variety of kinds of manuscript relationships."] [Contents: Introduction -- Description of the Manuscript -- The First Stint of Copying (c. 1440 to the mid-1440s) -- The Second Stint (the mid-1440s to the mid-1450s) -- The Third Stint (mid-1440s to mid-1450s) -- The Fourth Stint (mid-1450s to c. 1465) -- Implications of this Study -- Appendix: Other Analyses of Poem Order.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production: France; authorial copies (autographs, holographs); authors and authorship *]

Backhouse, Janet. The Illuminated Page: Ten Centuries of Manuscript Painting in the British Library. London: British Library; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1997. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Banks, Doris H. Medieval Manuscript Bookmaking: A Bibliographic Guide. Metuchen, NJ, and London: Scarecrow Press, 1989. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; general bibliography (study of the book) *]

Beadle, Richard. "English Autograph Writings of the Later Middle Ages: Some Preliminaries." In Gli autografi medievali: Problemi paleografici e filologici; Atti del convegno di studio della Fondazione Ezio Franceschini, Erice, 25 settembre-2 ottobre 1990. Ed. Paolo Chiesa and Lucia Pinelli. Pref. Claudio Leonardi. Quaderni di cultura mediolatina 5. Spoleto: Centro Italiano di Studi Sull'alto Medioevo, 1994. Pp. 249-268. [A catalogue of autograph manuscripts by medieval English authors (including Thomas Hoccleve, William Herebert, and others), with some "preliminary" discussion of the significance of such manuscripts.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; authorial copies (autographs, holographs) *]

Bell, H. E. "The Price of Books in Medieval England." The Library 4th ser. 17 (1936-1937): 312-332. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; economics and literature; commerce, commercial; sale of books; value and price of books *]

Bell, Kimberly K., and Julie Nelson Couch, eds. The Texts and Contexts of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Laud misc. 108: The Shaping of English Vernacular Narrative. Medieval and Renaissance Authors and Texts 6. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011. [Contents: Introduction: Reading Oxford, Bodleian Library, ms Laud misc. 108 as a "whole book" -- Part 1: The manuscript and its provenance -- Part 2: The manuscript and its texts.] [* Subject heading: manuscript culture; codicology; Middle English literature *]

Benson, C. David, and Barry A. Windeatt. "The Manuscript Glosses to Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Review 25 (1990-1991): 33-53. [The manuscript glosses help us to measure some aspects of fifteenth-century response to the work (their ideas of important passages, of structural divisions, etc.).] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; codicology; marginalia; glosses and glossing; Geoffrey Chaucer *]

Blake, N[orman] F. "The Chaucer Canon: Methodological Assumptions." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 90 (1989): 295-310. [Manuscripts and authorship attribution.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; authors and authorship *]

Blake, N[orman] F. "The Ellesmere Text in the Light of the Hengwrt Manuscript." In The Ellesmere Chaucer: Essays in Interpretation. Ed. Martin Stevens and Daniel Woodward. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library; Tokyo: Yushodo, 1995. Pp. 205-224. [* Subject heading: manuscript culture; Ellesmere Manuscript of the Canterbury Tales (San Marino, Huntington Library, MS EL 26.C.9); Hengwrt Manuscript of the Canterbury Tales (Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales, MS Peniarth 392D [formerly Hengwrt 154]); Geoffrey Chaucer *]

Blake, N[orman] F. "The Relationship Between the Hengwrt and the Ellesmere MSS of the 'Canterbury Tales.'" Essays and Studies 32 (1979): 1-18. [* Subject heading: manuscript culture; Ellesmere Manuscript of the Canterbury Tales (San Marino, Huntington Library, MS EL 26.C.9); Hengwrt Manuscript of the Canterbury Tales (Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales, MS Peniarth 392D [formerly Hengwrt 154]); Geoffrey Chaucer *]

Bliss, A. J. "Notes on the Auchinleck Manuscript." Speculum 26 (1951): 652-658. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; Auchinleck MS (Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Advocates MS 19.2.1) *]

Boffey, Julia. "French Lyrics and English Manuscripts: The Transmission of Some Poems in Trinity College, Cambridge, MS R.3.20, and British Library MS Harley 7333." Text 4 (1988): 135-146. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript culture (literary transmission) *]

Boffey, Julia. Manuscripts of English Courtly Love Lyrics in the Later Middle Ages. Manuscript Studies 1. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1985. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript culture (literary transmission) *]

Bologna, Giulia. Illuminated Manuscripts: The Book before Gutenberg. Trans. Jay Hyams. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988. [Includes a section on papyrology; includes sections on writing materials, tools, etc.; includes a list of the names (with short biographies) of known illuminators; includes a section of short descriptions of modern repositories. The bulk of the book, though, consists of 149 colour reproductions of MS pages in roughly chronological order. Trans. of Manoscritti e miniature (Milan: Fenice 2000 / Anaya Editoriale, 1988).] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; material production (paper, parchment, vellum); material production (writing implements); manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Boyle, Leonard E. "The Nowell Codex and the Poem of Beowulf." In The Dating of Beowulf. Ed. Colin Chase. Toronto Old English Series 6. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981. Pp. 21-32. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; "Beowulf" manuscript (London, British Library MS Cotton Vitellius A.xv) *]

Bradley, John [William]. Illuminated Manuscripts. Little Books on Art. London: Methuen, 1905. [Rpt. London: Bracken, 1996.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Brook, G. L. "A Piece of Evidence for the Study of Middle English Spelling." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 73 (1972): 25-28. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Brown, Michelle P. Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts. London: British Library; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1991. [A short and general account of manuscripts from the early Middle Ages, using examples from the collections of the British Library.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; history of the book; Old English period; Anglo-Saxon manuscripts *]

Brown, Michelle P., and Scott McKendrick, eds. Illuminating the Book: Makers and Interpreters; Essays in Honour of Janet Backhouse. British Library Studies in Medieval Culture. London: British Library, 1998. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Brownrigg, Linda L., ed. Making the Medieval Book: Techniques of Production. Los Altos Hill, CA: Anderson-Lovelace / Red Gull, 1995. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Brownrigg, Linda L., ed. Medieval Book Production: Assessing the Evidence; Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Seminar in the History of the Book to 1500, Oxford, July 1988. Los Altos Hill, CA: Red Gull Press / Anderson-Lovelace, 1990. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Bruns, Gerald L. "The Originality of Texts in a Manuscript Culture." Comparative Literature 32 (1980): 113-129. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript culture (literary transmission); early modern manuscripts *]

Buringh, Eltjo. Medieval Manuscript Production in the Latin West: Explorations with a Global Database. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011. [* Subject Heading: Manuscript Production; book industries and trade; Western Europe; manuscript reproduction; codicology; statistical methods *]

Butler, Shane. The Matter of the Page: Essays in Search of Ancient and Medieval Authors. Wisconsin Studies in Classics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011. [Publisher's description: "Ancient and medieval literary texts often call attention to their existence as physical objects. Shane Butler helps us to understand why. Arguing that writing has always been as much a material struggle as an intellectual one, The Matter of the Page offers timely lessons for the digital age about how creativity works and why literature moves us."] [Contents: Backward Glance -- Myself Sick -- Latin Decomposition -- Erasable Cicero -- Surface of the Page -- Folded Page.] [* Subject heading: manuscript culture (Ancient and Medieval); manuscript production: material culture; history of the book; authors and authorship *]

Calkins, Robert G. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Camille, Michael. Image on the Edge: The Margins of Medieval Art. Essays in Art and Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); marginalia *]

Cayley, Emma, and Susan Powell, eds. Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, 1350-1550: Packaging, Presentation, and Consumption. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2013. [Publisher's description: "This collaborative collection considers the packaging, presentation and consumption of medieval manuscripts and early printed books in Europe 1350-1550, . . . [highlighting] the materiality of the manuscript or printed book as a consumable, focusing on its 'consumability' in the sense of its packaging and presentation, its consumers, and on the act of consumption in the sense of reading and reception or literal decay."] [* Subject Heading: Manuscript production; Early printed books and incunabula: production; materiality of manuscripts and printed books; history of the book; medieval; early consumer culture *]

Clement, Richard W. "Codicology as an Introduction to Medieval Literature." In Teaching the Middle Ages II. Ed. Robert V. Graybill, John Hallwas, Judy Hample, Robert L. Kindrick, Robert E. Lovell. SMART: Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Teaching. Warrensburg: Central Missouri State University, 1985. Pp. 159-169. [Clement recommends an introduction to some aspects of codicology as an introduction to medieval literature especially to make vivid the cultural differences between our age and the Middle Ages. Clement discusses some of the aspects of codicology he introduces in his classes such as the origins of some terms like codex and liber; the early forms of codices in the Christian era; book construction techniques (such as the hair-to-flesh stacking of parchment sheets, methods of ruling, collation, the use of singletons, methods of trimming and binding, and various anomalies in these); scriptoria differences; the description of bindings [abstract by John Morris].] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; codicology *]

Clemoes, Peter. Liturgical Influence on Punctuation in Late Old English and Early Middle English Manuscripts. Occasional Papers 1. Cambridge: Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Department of Anglo-Saxon, 1952. [The system of "neums" used in medieval music manuscripts is not a system of musical notation as we know it. The marks do not provide precise details about pitch and duration but serve as reminders of how to sing pieces already committed to memory by the singers. The neums function like many medieval punctuation systems for works intended for oral reading where the reader is cued to raise or lower the pitch or pause for rhetorical effect [abstract by John Morris].] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; history of punctuation *]

Cockshaw, Pierre, et al., eds. Miscellanea Codicologica F. Masai Dicata, MCMLXXIX. Pubs. de Scriptorium 8. Ghent: Story-Scientia, 1979. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; codicology *]

Connolly, Margaret, and Linne R. Mooney, eds. Design and Distribution of Late Medieval Manuscripts in England. Manuscript Culture in the British Isles 1. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2008. [Publisher's description: "One of the most important developments in medieval English literary studies since the 1980s has been the growth of manuscript studies. Long regarded as mere textual repositories, and treated superficially by editors, manuscripts are now acknowledged as centrally important in the study of later medieval texts. The essays collected here discuss aspects of the design and distribution of manuscripts in late medieval England, with a particular focus on vernacular manuscripts of the late fourteenth, fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Those in the first half consider material evidence for scribal decisions about design: these range from analysis of individual codices to broader discussions of particular types of manuscripts, both religious and secular. Later essays look at the evidence for the production and distribution of manuscripts of specific English texts or types of text. These include the major Middle English poems The Canterbury Tales and Piers Plowman, as well as key religious works such as Love's Mirror, Hilton's Scale of Perfection, the Speculum Vitae and The Pricke of Conscience, all of which survive in significant numbers of manuscripts. The comparison of secular and devotional texts illuminates shared networks of production and dissemination, and increases our knowledge of regional and metropolitan book production in the period before printing."] [Contents: "'Chaucer's Scribe,' Adam, and the Hengwrt Project," Daniel W. Mosser; "The Trinity Gower D Scribe's Two Canterbury Tales Manuscripts Revisited," Jacob Thaisen; "Corrected Mistakes in MS Gg.4.27," Takako Kato; "Late Medieval Efforts at Standardization and Reform in the Sarum Lessons for Saints' Days," Sherry L. Reames; "Evolution of a Manuscript: The Pavement Hours," Amelia Grounds; "Singing from the Same Hymn-Sheet: Two Bridgettine Manuscripts," John Sexton; "Secundum Originale Examinatum: The Refashioning of a Benedictine Historical Manuscript," Julian Luxford; "Locating Scribal Activity in Late Medieval London," Linne R. Mooney; "What do the Numbers Mean?: A Textual Critic's Observations on Some Patterns of Middle English Manuscript Transmission," Michael Sargent; "The Middle English Prose Brut and the Possibilities of Cultural Mapping," John Thompson; "Mapping Manuscripts and Readers of Contemplations of the Dread and Love of God," M. Connolly; "Yorkshire Manuscripts of the Speculum Vitae," Ralph Hanna; "Vernacular Herbals: A Growth Industry in Late Medieval England," G. R. Keiser.] [* Subject Heading: Manuscript production; Middle Ages; Geoffrey Chaucer; Richard Rolle; Adam Pinckhurst; manuscript studies; scribes and scribal practices; textual transmission *]

De Hamel, Christopher. A History of Illuminated Manuscripts. Oxford: Phaidon, 1986. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

De Hamel, Christopher. Scribes and Illuminators. Medieval Craftsmen. London: British Museum, 1992. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

De Hamel, Christopher. The British Library Guide to Manuscript Illumination: History and Techniques. The British Library Guides. London: British Library, 1998. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Deanesly, M. "Vernacular Books in England in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries." Modern Language Review 15 (1920): 349-358. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; reading and readers *]

Derolez, Albert. The Making and Meaning of the "Liber Floridus": A Study of the Original Manuscript (Ghent, University Library, MS 92). Studies in Medieval and Early Renaissance Art History 76. London: Harvey Miller, 2015. [Publisher's description: "The Liber Floridus (1121), composed, written and illustrated by Canon Lambert of Saint-Omer, is the earliest illustrated encyclopedic compilation of the Latin West. Its autograph (Ghent, University Library, MS 92), a masterpiece of Romanesque book art and one of the most complicated manuscripts ever made, has been studied by the author for almost half a century. The present book is the culmination of this research and provides a detailed codicological and textual analysis, showing how this wonderful book was put together and which are the hidden ideas Lambert sought to develop in its hundreds of texts and pictures dealing with astronomy, geography, natural history, history, religion and countless other subjects."] [* Subject heading: Manuscript production; Liber Floridus: manuscripts; textual transmission; autograph manuscripts; authorial copies (autographs, holographs); Ghent, Belgium, Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent, MS 92 *]

Diringer, David. The Hand-Produced Book. New York: Philosophical Library, 1953. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Doyle, A. I. "Book Production by the Monastic Orders in England (c. 1375-1530): Assessing the Evidence." In Medieval Book Production: Assessing the Evidence; Proceedings of the Second Conference of The Seminar in the History of the Book to 1500, Oxford, July 1988. Ed. Linda L. Brownrigg. Los Altos Hills, CA: Red Gull Press / Anderson-Lovelace, 1990. Pp. 1-19. [According to Brownrigg's Introduction, p. xii, Doyle's essay was originally planned as part of the volume Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375-1475, ed. Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall, Cambridge Studies in Publishing and Printing History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), "which explains its first limit of date."] [* Subject heading: manuscript production (monastic scriptoria) *]

Doyle, A. I. "The English Provincial Book Trade before Printing." In Six Centuries of the Provincial Book Trade in Britain. Ed. Peter Isaac. Winchester: St. Paul's Bibliographies, 1990. Pp. 13-29. ["The papers published in this volume were presented at the Eighth Seminar on the British Book Trade, Durham, July 1990, the silver jubilee of the History of the Book Trade in the North." A survey of what is known about provincial centres of manuscript production.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Doyle, A. I. "The Shaping of the Vernon and Simeon Manuscripts." In Chaucer and Middle English Studies in Honour of Rossell Hope Robbins. Ed. Beryl Rowland. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1974. Pp. 328-341. [Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Eng. poet. a.1 (Sum. Cat. 3938-3942) (Vernon MS); London, British Library, MS Addit. 22283 (Simeon MS).] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology *]

Doyle, A. I., Elizabeth Rainey, and D. B. Wilson. Manuscript to Print: Tradition and Innovation in the Renaissance Book. Durham University Library Guides, Special Series 1. Durham: Durham University Library, 1975. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; early printed books: production; incunabula; relation of manuscripts and books *]

Doyle, A. I., and M. B. Parkes. "The Production of Copies of the Canterbury Tales and the Confessio Amantis in the Early Fifteenth Century." In Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts and Libraries: Essays Presented to N. R. Ker. Ed. M. B. Parkes and Andrew G. Watson. London: Scolar Press, 1978. Pp. 163-210. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; Geoffrey Chaucer; John Gower *]

Edwards, A. S. G. "Beinecke MS 661 and Early Fifteenth-Century English Manuscript Production." Yale University Library Gazette 66 supp. (1991): 181-196. [New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Library, MS 661.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology *]

Edwards, A. S. G. "The Manuscript: British Library MS Cotton Nero A.x." In A Companion to the Gawain-Poet. Ed. Derek Brewer and Jonathan Gibson. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1997. Pp. 197-219. [* Subject heading: manuscript culture; manuscript production; literary transmission; "Pearl"; "Gawain and the Green Knight"; London, British Library, MS Cotton Nero A.x. art. 3 *]

Fein, Susanna. "Roll or Codex? The Diptych Layout of Thomas of Hales' 'Love Rune.'" Trivium 31 (1999): 13-23. [Vol. 31 of Trivium is a special issue: "Sources, Exemplars, and Copy-Texts: Influence and Transmission; Essays from the Lampeter Conference of the Early Book Society, 1997," ed. William Marx.] [Re: Oxford, Jesus College MS 29.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; page layout and design (mise en page; mise en texte); ordinatio; Thomas of Hales, "Luve Ron" *]

Fein, Susanna, ed. Studies in the Harley Manuscript: The Scribes, Contents, and Social Contexts of British Library MS Harley 2253. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, for TEAMS, 2000. [Contents: "British library MS Harley 2253: the lyrics, the facsimile, and the book," Susanna Fein; "Scribe and provenance," Carter Revard; "Miscellany or anthology?: the structure of medieval manuscripts--MS Harley 2253, for example," Theo Stemmler; "An 'electric stream': the religious contents," Michael P. Kuczynski; "Authority and resistance: the political verse," John Scattergood; "Historicity and complaint in Song of the husbandman," Richard Newhauser; "Debate verse," Karl Reichl; "Dreams and dream lore," Helen Phillips; "Authors, anthologists, and Franciscan spirituality," David L. Jeffrey; "'Frankis rimes here I redd, / communlik in ilk[a] sted . . .': the French Bible stories in Harley 2253," John J. Thompson; "Anthologizing ribaldry: five Anglo-Norman fabliaux," Barbara Nolan; "Evading textual intimacy: the French secular verse," Mary Dove; "A saint 'Geynest under Gore': Marina and the love lyrics of the seventh quire," Susanna Fein; "Layout, punctuation, and stanza patterns in the English verse," Elizabeth Solopova; "The language of the English poems: the Harley scribe and his exemplars," Frances McSparran; "Harey 2253, Digby 86, and the circulation of literature in pre-Chaucerian England," Marilyn Corrie.] [* Subject heading: Manuscript production; Harley Lyrics; manuscripts; textual transmission; Literature and society; London, British Library, MS Harley 2253 *]

Fisher, John H. "The Intended Illustrations in MS Corpus Christi 61 of Chaucer's Troylus and Criseyde." In Medieval Studies in Honor of Lillian Herlands Hornstein. Ed. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr., and Robert R. Raymo. New York: New York University Press, 1976. Pp. 111-119. [Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Library, MS 61.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); Geoffrey Chaucer (Troilus and Criseyde) *]

Galway, M. "The Troilus Frontispiece." Modern Language Review 44 (1949): 161-177. [Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Library, MS 61.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); Geoffrey Chaucer (Troilus and Criseyde) *]

Gameson, Richard. "The Cost of the 'Codex Amiatinus.'" Notes and Queries ns 39 (1992): 2-9. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; economics; value and price of books; Bible (Latin); Anglo-Saxon culture; Abbeys of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow; Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Amiat. MS 1 *]

Gameson, Richard, ed. The Early Medieval Bible: Its Production, Decoration and Use. Cambridge Studies in Palaeography and Codicology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Gillespie, Alexandra, and Daniel Wakelin, eds. The Production of Books in England, 1350-1500. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. [* Subject Heading: Manuscript production; Early printed books and incunabula: production; materiality of manuscripts and printed books; history of the book; book industry *]

Greenberg, Cheryl. "John Shirley and the English Book Trade." The Library 6th ser. 4 (1982): 369-380. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Griffiths, Jeremy, and Derek Pearsall, eds. Book Production and Publishing in Britain 1375-1475. Cambridge Studies in Publishing and Printing History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. [Contents: R. J. Lyall, "Materials: The Paper Revolution"; Kathleen L. Scott, "Design, Decoration, and Illustration"; Mirjam M. Foot, "English Decorated Bookbindings"; C. Paul Christianson, "Evidence for the Study of London's Late Medieval Manuscript-Book Trade"; A. I. Doyle, "Publication by Members of the Religious Orders"; Anne Hudson, "Lollard Book Production"; Andrew Wathey, "The Production of Books of Liturgical Polyphony"; Kate Harris, "Patrons, Buyers and Owners: The Evidence for Ownership, and the Rôle of Book Owners in Book Production and the Book Trade"; Carol Meale, "Patrons, Buyers and Owners: Book Production and Social Status"; R. J. Lyall, "Books and Book Owners in Fifteenth-Century Scotland"; A. S. G. Edwards and Derek Pearsall, "The Manuscripts of the Major English Poetic Texts"; Julia Boffey and John J. Thompson, "Anthologies and Miscellanies: Production and Choice of Texts"; Vincent Gillespie, "Vernacular Books of Religion"; Linda Ehrsam Voigts, "Scientific and Medical Books"; N. F. Blake, "Manuscript to Print."] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); paleography (history of handwriting); material production (bookbinding, paper); reading and readers (patronage); libraries and repositories (historical); provenance; manuscript ownership and collecting; early printed books: production; incunabula; relation of manuscripts and books *]

Hanna, Ralph, III. "Miscellaneity and Vernacularity: Conditions of Literary Production in Late Medieval England." In The Whole Book: Cultural Perspectives on the Medieval Miscellany. Ed. Stephen G. Nichols and Siegfried Wenzel. Recentiores: Later Latin Texts and Contexts. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. Pp. 37-51. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Hanna, Ralph, III. "The Production of Cambridge University Library MS Ff.i.6." Studies in Bibliography 40 (1987): 62-70. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology *]

Hellinga, Lotte. "The Codex in the Fifteenth Century: Manuscript and Print." In A Potencie of Life: Books in Society; The Clark Lectures 1986-1987. Ed. Nicolas Barker. London: British Library, 1993. Pp. 63-88. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; early printed books; incunabula *]

Hellinga, Lotte, and Hilton Kelliher. "The Malory Manuscript." British Library Journal 3 (1977): 91-113. [On the "Winchester manuscript" of Malory (now London, British Library MS Addit. 59678). The authors summarize the evidence that this is the manuscript that Caxton used; they then outline the history of the manuscript since that time.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; history of printing; early printed books: production; incunabula: copy-texts and exemplars; relation of manuscripts and books; manuscript ownership and collecting *]

Heyworth, P. L. "The Punctuation of Middle English Texts." In Medieval Studies for J. A. W. Bennett, Aetatis Suae LXX. Ed. P. L. Heyworth. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981. Pp. 139-157. [Heyworth objects to the "bad inheritance" of modern editors in their punctuating of Middle English texts, for they punctuate almost exactly as did their immediate predecessors, and he objects to the lack of effort put into new editions to punctuate critically. He re-punctuates Usk's Testament of Love not only to make it flow smoothly, but also to make sense. Usk's work turns out to be better and more valuable than the "bad inheritance" of modern editors suggests. Heyworth also notes important shifts of signification when he re-punctuates Chaucer's Book of the Duchess, Troilus and Criseyde and the "Knight's Tale." Heyworth insists on the obligation of the modern editor to punctuate texts in modern style, but he also insists that it be done with a fresh critical eye with each new edition. He expresses horror at Manly and Rickert's unpunctuated Chaucer [abstract by John Morris].] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; history of punctuation *]

Hodapp, William F. "The Visual Presentation of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde in Three Fifteenth-Century Manuscripts." Manuscripta 38 (1994): 237-252. [Hodapp considers the visual aspects (layout, decoration, illumination) of three manuscripts (each of them published in the Pilgrim Books series of Chaucer facsimiles): Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 61; Cambridge, St. John's College, MS L.1; New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M.817.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); page layout and design (mise en page; mise en texte); ordinatio; Geoffrey Chaucer *]

Howard-Hill, T. H. "'Nor stage, nor stationers stall can showe': The Circulation of Plays in Manuscript in the Early Seventeenth Century." Book History 2 (1999): 28-41. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; scribes and scribal practices; manuscript culture (literary transmission); early modern manuscripts *]

Jenkinson, H[ilary], (Sir). "Notes on the Study of English Punctuation of the Sixteenth Century." Review of English Studies 2 (1926): 152-158. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; history of punctuation *]

Kenyon, F. Books and Readers in Ancient Rome. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; reading and readers *]

Ker, Neil R. English Manuscripts in the Century after the Norman Conquest. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Kiernan, Kevin S. "Digital Image Processing and the Beowulf Manuscript." Literary and Linguistic Computing 6 (1991): 20-27. [L&LC 6.1 is a Special Issue on Computers and Medieval Studies, ed. Marilyn Deegan with Andrew Armour and Mark Infusino. Abstract: "Over the past dozen years forensic and medical applications of technology first developed to record and transmit pictures from outer space have changed the way we see things here on earth, including Old English manuscripts. With their talents combined, an electronic camera designed for use with documents and a digital computer can now frequently enhance the legibility of formerly obscure or even invisible texts. The computer first converts the analogue image, in this case a videotape, to a digital image by dividing it into a microscopic grid and numbering each part by its relative brightness. Specific image processing programs can then radically improve the contrast, for example by stretching the range of brightness throughout the grid from black to white, emphasizing edges, and suppressing random background noise that comes from the equipment rather than the document. Applied to some of the most illegible passages in the Beowulf manuscript, this new technology indeed shows us some things we had not seen before and forces us to reconsider some established readings."] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; uses of computers; "Beowulf" manuscript (London, British Library MS Cotton Vitellius A.xv) *]

Kiernan, Kevin S. Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript. 2nd ed. Foreward by Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; Anglo-Saxon period; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; "Beowulf" manuscript (London, British Library MS Cotton Vitellius A.xv) *]

Loomis, Laura Hibbard. "Chaucer and the Auchinleck MS: 'Thopas' and 'Guy of Warwick.'" In Essays and Studies in Honor of Carleton Brown. New York: New York University Press, 1940. Pp. 111-128. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; Geoffrey Chaucer; reading and readers; Auchinleck MS (Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Advocates MS 19.2.1) *]

Loomis, Laura Hibbard. "Chaucer and the Breton Lays of the Auchinleck MS." Studies in Philology 38 (1941): 14-33. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; Geoffrey Chaucer; reading and readers; Auchinleck MS (Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Advocates MS 19.2.1) *]

Loomis, Laura Hibbard. "The Auchinleck MS and a Possible London Bookshop of 1330-1340." PMLA 57 (1942): 595-628. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; Auchinleck MS (Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Advocates MS 19.2.1) *]

Love, Harold. Scribal Publication in Seventeenth-Century England. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. [On manuscript production and dissemination in the seventeenth century. The paperback edition (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998) changed the title: The Culture and Commerce of Texts: Scribal Publication in Seventeenth-Century England.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript culture (literary transmission); early modern manuscripts *]

Manion, Margaret M., and Bernard J. Muir, eds. Medieval Texts and Images: Studies of Manuscripts from the Middle Ages. Chur, Reading, Paris, Philadelphia, Tokyo, and Melbourne: Harwood Academic Publishers; Sydney: Craftsman House, 1991. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); manuscript culture (literary transmission) *]

Marotti, Arthur F. Manuscript, Print, and the English Renaissance Lyric. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995. ["In this historical and cultural study of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century lyric poetry, Marotti examines the interrelationship between systems of literary transmission and shows how in England manuscript and print publication together shaped the emerging institution of literature."] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript culture (literary transmission); early modern manuscripts; early printed books *]

Martin, Henri-Jean, and Jean Vezin, eds. Mise en page et mise en texte du livre manuscrit. Paris: Cercle de la Librarie / Promodis, 1991. [Page layout in medieval and later manuscripts.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; page layout and design; ordinatio *]

Medieval Manuscripts, Their Makers and Users: A Special Issue of "Viator" in Honor of Richard and Mary Rouse. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. [Publisher's description: "The essays in this collection pertain to art history, medieval Latin culture both ecclesiastic and legal, the history of vernacular literatures, and the devotional practices of the laity. They reflect the patronage of authors and manuscript painters, from the royal through the monastic to the urban middle class, and they trace the sometimes astonishing afterlife of manuscripts. The subject matter of these studies ranges chronologically from late antiquity to the later Middle Ages, adding the emergent medievalism of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Its geographic breadth extends through the major Western cultures and literatures, from England to Italy, Germany, and France. Its wide range in time and space reflects the lifetime of manuscript research, teaching, and collecting by its honorees, Richard and Mary Rouse."] [Contents: "Text and Image in the Getty Tristan, Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, MS Ludwig XV, 5," Keith Busby; "Laurent de Premierfait and the Visualization of Antiquity," Anne D. Hedeman; "The Pro-active Reader: Learning to Learn the Law," Susan L'Engle; "Linking Ancient Troy and Medieval France: Illuminations of an Early Copy of the Roman de Troie," Elizabeth Morrison; "Jean le Noir et Saint-Martin-des-Champs," François Avril; "La bibliothèque des Dominicains de Bâle au XVe siècle: Fragment inédit d'un catalogue alphabétique," François Dolbeau; "Writing History from Manuscript and Artifact: Building an Object-Based Narrative of the Middle Ages in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century France," Bonnie Effros; "The Transmission of North African Texts to Europe in Late Antiquity," Stacey Graham; "Non-biblical Texts in Thirteenth-Century Bibles," Laura Light; "Private Libraries Privately Made," Patricia Stirnemann; "William Darker: The Work of an English Carthusian Scribe," A. I. Doyle; "Dan Michel of Northgate and His Books," Ralph Hanna; "Books and Their Survival: The Case of English Manuscripts of Wyclif's Latin Works," Anne Hudson; "'Genealogical' History and the English Roll," Margaret Lamont; "Noble and Most Ancient: Catalogues of City Foundation in Fourteenth-Century Italy," Carrie E. Beneš; "UCLA Rouse MS 32: The Provenance of a Dismembered Italian Illuminated Book of Hours Illuminated by the Master of the Brussels Initials," Peter Kidd; "The Richard and Mary Rouse Collection of Medieval Manuscripts at the University of California, Los Angeles," Sandra Hindman; Bibliography of Richard H. Rouse and Mary A. Rouse.] [* Subject heading: Manuscript production; scribes; manuscript dissemination; illumination of books and manuscripts; medieval book culture *]

Minnis, A. J., ed. Latin and Vernacular: Studies in Late-Medieval Texts and Manuscripts. York Manuscripts Conference, Proceedings 1. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1989. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Monks, Peter Rolfe, and D. D. R. Owen, eds. Medieval Codicology, Iconography, Literature and Translation: Studies for Keith Val Sinclair. Litterae Textuales. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); manuscript culture (literary transmission) *]

Nichols, Stephen G., and Siegfried Wenzel, eds. The Whole Book: Cultural Perspectives on the Medieval Miscellany. Recentiores: Later Latin Texts and Contexts. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; compilations *]

Nordenfalk, Carl. Color of the Middle Ages: A Survey of Book Illumination based on Color Facsimiles of Medieval Manuscripts. Pittsburgh: University Art Gallery, 1976. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Orth, Myra. Renaissance Manuscripts: The Sixteenth Century. 2 vols. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in France 4. London: Harvey Miller, 2015. [Publisher's description: "This publication is the first comprehensive survey to establish the importance of Renaissance manuscript illumination in the history of sixteenth-century French art. Although illustrated printed books were circulating freely by the beginning of the sixteenth century, patronage of manuscripts became all the more special to the ruling elite, and commissions from the court, aristocratic circles and the higher clergy resulted in a surge of artistic creativity that produced a wide range of outstanding illustrated works from devotional books to translations of classical and humanistic texts. While continuing the tradition of French figurative art, ornamentation became a major element in the style of the period, with frames and borders becoming a significant feature of the aesthetic impact of the illuminated page. One hundred manuscripts have been chosen for this survey to represent the artistic excellence of French book production of the period, as well as to demonstrate the stylistic relationships between artists and between books that may be seen to form distinct groups."] [* Subject heading: Manuscript production (French); manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); manuscripts (catalogues: thematic [illustrations]); sixteenth-century France; early modern manuscripts *]

Overty, Joanne Filippone. "The Cost of Doing Scribal Business: Prices of Manuscript Books in England, 1300-1483." Book History 11 (2008): 1-32. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; scribes and scribal practices; economics; commerce, commercial; sale of books; value and price of books *]

Parkes, M. B. "The Influence of the Concepts of Ordinatio and Compilatio on the Development of the Book." In Medieval Learning and Literature: Essays Presented to Richard William Hunt. Ed. J. J. G. Alexander and M. T. Gibson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Pp. 115-141 and Pls. IX-XVI. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; compilations; ordinatio *]

Parkes, M. B. Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West. Aldershot, Hants.: Scolar Press, 1992. [Publisher's description: "The first part of Pause and Effect identifies the graphic symbols of punctuation and deals with their history. It covers the antecedents of the repertory of symbols, as well as the ways in which the repertory was refined and augmented with new symbols to meet changing requirements. The second part offers a short general account of the principal influences which have contributed to the ways in which the symbols have been applied in texts, focusing on the evidence of the practice itself rather than on theorists. The treatment enables the reader to compare usages in different periods, and to isolate the principles which underlie the use of punctuation in all periods."] [Contents: Introduction. Part 1: Pause: Symbols as Notation. Antiquity: aids for inexperienced readers and the prehistory of punctuation -- Changing attitudes to the written word: components in a 'grammar of legibility' -- Carolingian renovatio: augmenting old notation with new symbols -- The requirements of public worship -- The development of the general repertory of punctuation -- The technology of printing and the stabilization of the symbols. Part 2: Effect: Symbols as Signs. Influences on the application of punctuation -- The layout and punctuation of verse. Part 3: Plates and Commentaries. Part 4: Glossary, Indexes and Lists.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; history of punctuation *]

Parkes, M. B. "Punctuation, or Pause and Effect." In Medieval Eloquence: Studies in the Theory and Practice of Medieval Rhetoric. Ed. James J. Murphy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. Pp. 127-142. [There are several historical styles of punctuation in the Middle Ages which succeed each other as previous styles fall into disuse. Sometimes punctuation is used to clarify the littera or proper arrangement of words, the sensus or literal meaning, or the sententia or deeper meaning. These terms also become interchanged at different times. Punctuation was also sometimes used as enunciation cues for oratory. Hugh of St. Victor and William of Conches favoured punctuation to reveal the sententia, as did Roger Bacon who wrote as the sententia system was falling into disuse in the 13th century. Nicholas of Lyra, however, favoured a system that made the sensus clear, while Bonus of Florence ridiculed pronuntiatio systems [abstract by John Morris].] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; history of punctuation *]

Partridge, Stephen. The Manuscript Glosses to the "Canterbury Tales." Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; codicology; marginalia; glosses and glossing; Geoffrey Chaucer *]

"The Production and Use of English Manuscripts 1060 to 1220." Orietta Da Rold, Takako Kato, Mary Swan, and Elaine Treharne; University of Leicester and University of Leeds. [<https://www.le.ac.uk/ee/em1060to1220/>. "From the conception of the project to the final delivery, we aimed to identify, analyse and evaluate all manuscripts containing English written in England between 1060 and 1220; to produce an analytical corpus of material from late Anglo-Saxon England, through the Norman Conquest and into the high Middle Ages; to investigate key questions including the status of written English relative to French and Latin; and to raise awareness of agenda informing the production of so many texts in English during this important period."] [* Subject heading: manuscript production: English manuscripts; 1060-1220; medieval manuscripts *]

Putnam, George H. Books and their Makers during the Middle Ages: A Study of the Conditions of the Production and Distribution of Literature from the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Close of the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Putnam's, 1896-1897. [Rpt. New York: Hilary House Publishers, 1962.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Ramsey, R[oy] V[ance]. "The Hengwrt and Ellesmere Manuscripts of the Canterbury Tales: Different Scribes." Studies in Bibliography 35 (1982): 133-154. [Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales, MS Peniarth 392D (Hengwrt MS 154); San Marino, CA, Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, MS EL 26.C.9 (Ellesmere MS).] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; Geoffrey Chaucer; scribes and scribal practices *]

Reichardt, Paul F. "'Counted . . . bi a clene noumbre': The Design of the Pearl Manuscript." Manuscripta 38.2 (July 1994): 116-137. [A consideration of the ordinatio of the Pearl manuscript, especially in terms of the numerological bases of its design.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript culture; ordinatio; literary transmission; "Pearl"; "Gawain and the Green Knight"; London, British Library, MS Cotton Nero A.x. art. 3 *]

Richardson, Brian. Manuscript Culture in Renaissance Italy. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. [Publisher's description: "Even after the arrival of printing in the fifteenth century, texts continued to be circulated within Italian society by means of manuscript. Scribal culture offered rapidity, flexibility and a sense of private, privileged communication. This book is a detailed treatment of the continuing use of scribal transmission in Renaissance Italy. Brian Richardson explores the uses of scribal culture within specific literary genres, its methods and its audiences. He also places it within the wider system of textual communication and of self-presentation, examining the relationships between manuscript and print and between manuscript and the spoken or sung performance of verse. An important contribution to a lively area of the history of the book, this study will be of interest both for the abundance of new material on the circulation of texts in Italy and as a model for how to study the cultures of manuscript and print in early modern Europe."] [Contents: The contexts and characteristics of manuscript circulation -- Handwriting and the work of copyists -- The manuscript circulation of lyric and burlesque poetry -- The manuscript circulation of prose -- Authors and their readers: dedications and other paratexts -- Orality, manuscript and the circulation of verse.] [* Subject heading: manuscript culture; early modern manuscripts; medieval and early modern Italy; transmission of texts; manuscript production; palaeography; scribes and scribal practices; authors and authorship; readers and reading; orality and literacy; relationship of manuscripts and books *]

Robinson, Ian. "Manuscript Punctuation." Chap. 7 of Chaucer's Prosody: A Study of the Middle English Verse Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971. Pp. 132-147. [Describes the manuscript punctuation of late Middle English prose and poetry and argues that fifteenth-century manuscript punctuation is a better guide to correct reading of Chaucer than is the modern punctuation added by modern editors.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; history of punctuation *]

Robinson, Pamela R. "The 'Booklet': A Self-Contained Unit in Composite Manuscripts." Codicologica 3 (1980): 46-69. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; compilations *]

Robinson, P[amela] R., and Rivkah Zim, eds. Of the Making of Books: Medieval Manuscripts, their Scribes and Readers; Essays Presented to M. B. Parkes. Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Scolar Press / Ashgate Publishing, 1997. [Contents: Part 1: Of the Making of Books and of their Provenances. "Origin and Provenance of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: The Case of Cotton Tiberius A.III," Helmut Gneuss; "Mixed Blessings: A Twelfth-Century Manuscript from Waverley," Jean F. Preston; "'Quaderni simul ligati': Recherches sur les manuscrits en cahiers," Jean Vezin. Part 2: Scribes and Scripts. "A Twelfth-Century Scriptrix from Nunnaminster," P. R. Robinson; "Stephen Dodesham of Witham and Sheen," A. I. Doyle; "Geoffrey Spirleng (c.1426-c.1494): a Scribe of the Canterbury Tales in his Time," Richard Beadle; "'A Testimonye of Verye Ancient Tyme'?: Some Manuscript Models for the Parkerian Anglo-Saxon Type-Designs," Peter J. Lucas. Part 3: Readers as Makers of Texts and Traditions. "The Patristic Content of English Book Collections in the Eleventh Century: Towards a Continental Perspective," Teresa Webber; "Medieval Hypertext: Image and Text from York Minster," Vincent Gillespie; "History and Legend at Kirkstall in the Fifteenth Century," Jeanne E. Krochalis. Part 4: Ideas of Authors and Authorities. "The Author's Two Bodies?: Authority and Fallibility in Late-Medieval Textual Theory," A. J. Minnis; "'Mind in Character': Ancient and Medieval Ideas about the Status of the Autograph as an Expression of Personality," David Ganz; "A Bibliography of the Published Writings of M. B. Parkes," Rivkah Zim.] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; scribes and scribal practices; scribes (female); readers and reading; Geoffrey Chaucer; Matthew Parker; authorial copies (autographs, holographs); authors and authorship *]

Rouse, Richard H., and Laura Light. Manuscript Production. Primer 6. Paris and New York: Les Enluminures, 2014. [Publisher's description: A short illustrated pamphlet which "addresses the most basic questions: how were manuscripts made? who made them? and even (in one case), how long did it take? None of these questions are necessarily easy to answer, but as is shown here, the first step toward an answer involves careful study of manuscripts as materials artifacts."] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; material culture *]

Rouse, R[ichard] H., and M[ary] A. Rouse. "The Commercial Production of Manuscript Books in Late-Thirteenth- and Early-Fourteenth-Century Paris." In A Potencie of Life: Books in Society; The Clark Lectures, 1986-1987. Ed. Nicolas Barker. The British Library Studies in the History of the Book. London: British Library, 1993. Pp. 45-61. [As a result of a new tax imposed in the 1290s, there are preserved for six years in that decade the names and street locations of Paris merchants; the Rouses have surveyed these tax rolls for the evidence of the practices of booksellers. Among other things, the Rouses are interested in evidence of collaborations between supposedly "competing" firms: in order to meet deadlines, a bookseller would subcontract some part of a job to a neighbouring firm, possibly in expectation that this neighbour would send a little business back on some other occasion (54). There were two neighbourhoods in which booksellers were frequent: on the Left Bank to serve the university community, and a street on the Isle in front of Notre Dame Cathedral (there was on the Right Bank only one libraire, immediately adjacent to the Louvre "whence his principal business must have come" (47). Not the least remarkable feature of these lists of names is the indication of numbers of women active in the production and trade in books: women as co-owners of shops with their husbands (also mother and son teams), women as inheriting businesses upon a husband's death, women as taking oaths at the before the administrators of the University as illuminators, etc. There is also some evidence of women as consumers of books, and the last part of the article (pp. 56-58) consider the case of "Thomas de Maubeuge's most illustrious steady customer, . . . Mahaut, countess of Artois in her own right and countess of Burgundy by marriage (d. 1329)." We have an account of the books that she commissioned from Thomas (57-58): "Mahaut of Artois dispels some of our myths--about the vernacular book trade, and about the books sold to women of her class. She is not a demure lady who sits with her needlework and her lap dog, caressing her one pretty picture-book of prayers. For the most part, those of her books we have mentioned here are not at all 'coffee-table' books for display, with exquisite full-page illustration by the likes of Master Honoré or Jean Pucelle and with 'gold letters and little apes' (though indeed she had her [58] share of those). This is a vigorous, sometimes belligerent, woman of affairs who reads, really reads. She has the wit to know what she likes, the industry to search out where they may be found, and the money to commission copies for her use."] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; reading and readers (female, woman, women) *]

Rouse, Richard H., and Mary A. Rouse. "Ordinatio and Compilatio Revisited." In Ad Litteram: Authoritative Texts and Their Medieval Readers.. Ed. M. D. Jordan and K. Emery, Jr. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992. Pp. 113-134. [* Subject heading: manuscript production *]

Salter, Elizabeth, and Derek Pearsall. "Pictorial Illustration of Late Medieval Poetic Texts: The Role of the Frontispiece or Prefatory Picture." In Medieval Iconography and Narrative: A Symposium. Ed. Flemming G. Andersen, et al. Odense: Odense University Press, 1980. Pp. 100-123. ["Proceedings of the fourth international symposium organized by the Centre for the Study of Vernacular Literature in the Middle Ages, held at Odense University on 19-20 November 1979."] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination) *]

Scase, Wendy, ed. The Making of the Vernon Manuscript: The Production and Contexts of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Eng. poet. a.1. Texts and Transitions 6. Turnhout: Brepols, 2013. [Publisher's description: "This volume addresses important questions in late medieval book production and the history of the medieval book through original and substantial studies of one of the most remarkable surviving examples. The Vernon Manuscript, carefully copied and lavishly decorated around 1390-1400 for pious users, is famous as the largest and arguably the most important Middle English anthology. Its sheer size and conservation concerns mean that up to now it has been little studied as a book. The essays in this volume exploit for the first time the mass of new data generated by the Vernon Manuscript Project. Specialists in art history, bibliography, codicology, historical linguistics, and palaeography have been commissioned to interrogate this material from their various disciplinary perspectives. The result is a ground-breaking interdisciplinary volume which sheds new light on an iconic medieval book and on a transitional period of innovation and experimentation in vernacular book production."] [Contents: Part 1: Copying, Editing, and Assembly of the Vernon Manuscript. "Codicology, Palaeography, and Provenance," A. I. Doyle; "The Scribes of the Vernon Manuscript," Simon Horobin; "Mapping the Language of the Vernon Manuscript," Jeremy J. Smith; "Editorial Politics in the Vernon Manuscript," Ryan Perry; "Rubrics, Opening Numbering, and the Vernon Table of Contents," Wendy Scase. Part 2: Decoration and Illustration of the Vernon Manuscript. "Border Artists of the Vernon Manuscript," Rebecca Farnham; "The Miniatures in the Vernon Manuscript," Alison Stones; "The Artistic Origins of the Vernon Manuscript," Lynda Dennison; "The Artists of the Vernon Initials," Wendy Scase; Appendix to Part 2: "Division of Artists' Hands / Decoration Types." Part 3: Models, Analogues, and Patronage of the Vernon Manuscript. "Patronage Symbolism and Sowlehele," Wendy Scase; "Some Vernon Analogues and their Patrons," Wendy Scase; "The Patronage of the Vernon Manuscript," Wendy Scase.] [* Subject heading: Manuscript production; manuscripts; textual transmission; Literature and society; Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Eng. poet. a.1 *]

Schramm, W. L. "The Cost of Books in Chaucer's Time." Modern Language Notes 48 (1933): 139-145. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; economics and literature; commerce, commercial; sale of books; value and price of books; Geoffrey Chaucer *]

Sheppard, Jennifer M. The Buildwas Books: Book Production, Acquisition and Use at an English Cistercian Monastery, 1165-c.1400. Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1997. [* Subject heading: manuscript production (monastic scriptoria); libraries and repositories (historical); Abbey of Buildwas *]

Southern, R. W. (Sir). "Language, Punctuation and Spelling." Part 2 of his Introduction to The Life of St Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury by Eadmer. Ed. and trans. R. W. Southern. Oxford Medieval Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. Pp. xxv-xxxiv. [First published, 1962, in Nelson's Medieval Texts Series; 1972 reprint includes corrections. Southern discusses Eadmer's punctuation (which Southern's edition reproduces). This is also a useful general description of the punctuation of medieval manuscripts. Southern explains Eadmer's system of punctuation as consistent with the 12th-century practice of using neum-like marks to punctuate as an aid to oral delivery. He notes Eadmer's three marks which are used for medial stops, "rising voice" in the main sentence and as an indication of subordination [abstract by John Morris].] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; history of punctuation *]

Spector, Stephen. "The Composition and Development of an Eclectic Manuscript: Cotton Vespasian D VIII." Leeds Studies in English ns 9 (1976-1977): 62-83. [London, British Library, MS Cotton Vespasian D.viii (the "N-Town Plays").] [* Subject heading: manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; page layout and design; ordinatio *]

Stevens, Martin, and Daniel Woodward, eds. The Ellesmere Chaucer: Essays in Interpretation. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library; Tokyo: Yushodo, 1995. [* Subject heading: manuscript culture; manuscript production; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; Ellesmere Manuscript of the Canterbury Tales (San Marino, Huntington Library, MS EL 26.C.9); Geoffrey Chaucer *]

Stones, Alison. Gothic Manuscripts, c.1260-1320. 2 vols. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in France 3. London: Harvey Miller, 2013-2014. [Publisher's description: "French culture in the period c. 1260-1320 is marked by a surge in demand for fine illustrated books of all kinds--science, medicine, law, philosophy, literature in verse and prose, alongside books for private devotion and liturgical celebration. Some patrons were well-known rulers, court figures, or members of the clergy, but others were less significant players on the political or ecclesiastical scene, many of them unimportant in rank or unknown by name. The so-called 'courtly style' emerges at the beginning of this period, yet books made in provincial centres manifest a vital independence and originality due to fruitful interaction with neighbouring cultures--the linguistic, literary, and artistic traditions of England, the Iberian kingdoms, the Empire. Ecclesiastical structures offered different and complementary cultural networks. By the end of this period French art had assimilated this rich variety of regional works and styles, and patterns to be played out in the following centuries were in place."] [* Subject heading: Manuscript production (French); manuscript decoration and illustration (illumination); manuscripts (catalogues: thematic [illustrations]); medieval France; Gothic manuscripts *]

Thomas, David B. "Whence the Semicolon?: Thoughts on Sign and Signal in Western Script." In Early English and Norse Studies Presented to Hugh Smith, in Honour of his Sixtieth Birthday. Ed. Arthur Brown and Peter Foote. London: Methuen and Co., 1963. Pp. 191-195. [On the origins and history of the semicolon.] [* Subject Heading: manuscript production; history of punctuation; semicolons *]

Thorpe, James. Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales": The Ellesmere Manuscript. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1978. [* Subject heading: manuscript culture; manuscripts (codicological study); codicology; Ellesmere Manuscript of the Canterbury Tales (San Marino, Huntington Library, MS EL 26.C.9); Geoffrey Chaucer *]

Tristano, Caterina. "Economia del libro in Italia tra XV e XVI secolo: il costo del libro 'nuovo.'" Bulletin du bibliophile 2 (1991): 273-298. [* Subject heading: manuscript production; scribes and scribal practices; economics; commerce, commercial; sale of books; value and price of books; early modern Italy *]



Bibliography: [ Some basic resources ] | [ General bibliography ] | [ History of the book ] | [ Literacy and education, medieval and early modern (readers and reading) ] | [ Archival research ] | [ Forgeries / bibliographic fraud ] | [ Dictionaries (historical) ] | [ Early printed books and incunabula: Early Modern book culture ] | [ Early printed books and incunabula: production ] | [ Early printed books and incunabula: catalogues ] | [ Early printed books and incunabula: facsimiles ] | [ Diplomatics: the study of historical documents ] | [ Printing, history of ] | [ Publishing, history of ] | [ Libraries and repositories, history of; book collecting ] | [ Manuscript culture ] | [ Manuscript culture: patronage ] | [ Manuscripts: codicology ] | [ Manuscripts: paleography ] | [ Manuscript production ] | [ Manuscript production: scribes and scribal practices ] | [ Manuscript production: decoration and illustration ] | [ Manuscript production: material culture (paper, bindings, etc.) ] | [ Manuscripts: catalogues and finding aids ] | [ Manuscripts: facsimiles and facsimile editions ] | [ Sigillography (the study of seals) ] | [ Textual criticism and editing ] | [ Keyword search of entire bibliography ]


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© 1998, 2017 Stephen R. Reimer
English; University of Alberta; Edmonton, Canada
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Created: 29 Oct. 1998; Last revised: 27 Nov. 2017
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email: Stephen.Reimer@UAlberta.Ca
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