Pamela R. Willoughby's Publications
Books and Monographs
Spheroids and Battered Stones in the African Early and Middle Stone Age. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology #17/BAR International Series #321. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1987, 253 pages. (Still available from Hadrian Books Ltd. who are the distributors for all BAR publications).
The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa: A Comprehensive Guide. Lanham, Maryland: AltaMira Press, 2007, 439 pp. Published in AltaMira Press's African Archaeology Series, edited by Joseph O. Vogel.
Articles, Chapters in Books, Published refereed symposia:
"Spheroids and battered stones in the African Early and Middle Stone Age". World Archaeology 17(1): 44-60, 1985.
"Contribution à l'étude des spheroides et des bolos de quelques sites paléolithiques d'Afrique". L'Anthropologie 93(4): 1-17, 1989.
"Human origins and the sexual division of labour: an archaeological perspective". In D. Walde and N. Willows, editors, The Archaeology of Gender. Proceedings of the 22nd annual Chacmool Conference, Calgary, 1989. Calgary: Department of Archaeology, 1991, pp. 284-291.
"Earlier Stone Age archaeology and African Studies: a move towards reconciliation". Canadian Journal of African Studies 25(1): 70-88, 1991.
"Culture, environment and the emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa". In R.W. Jamieson, S. Abonyi and N.A. Mirau, editors, Culture and Environment: a fragile coexistence. Proceedings of the 24th annual Chacmool conference, Calgary, 1991. Calgary: Department of Archaeology, 1993, pp. 135-143.
"The Middle Stone Age in East Africa and modern human origins". The African Archaeological Review 11: 3-20, 1993.
"The origin and dispersal of modern humans". In Ann Herring and Leslie Chan, editors, Strength in Diversity: a reader in physical anthropology. Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press, 1994, pp. 235- 258.
"The Middle Stone Age in Southwestern Tanzania". In C.C. Magori, C.B. Saanane and F. Schrenk, editors, Four million years of hominid evolution in Africa: papers in honour of Dr. Mary Leakey's outstanding contribution in palaeoanthropology. Kaupia/Darmstäder Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte 6: 57-69, 1996.
"The meaning of the Acheulean-Middle Stone Age transition in Africa". In D.A. Meyer, P.C. Dawson and D.T. Hanna, editors, Debating Complexity: proceedings of the 26th annual Chacmool conference, 1993. Calgary: Chacmool Archaeological Association, 1996, pp. 202-211.
"Middle Stone Age technology and adaptation in southwestern Tanzania". In G. Pwiti and R. Soper, editors, Aspects of African Archaeology: papers from the 10th congress of the Pan African Association for Prehistory and Related Studies, Harare, Zimbabwe, June. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications, 1996, pp. 171-190.
"Archaeologists, palaeoanthropologists and the people without culture." In M. Boyd, J. C. Erwin and M. Hendrickson, editors, The Entangled Past: Integrating History and archaeology. Proceedings of the 30th annual Chacmool conference, Calgary, November 1997. Calgary: Chacmool Archaeological Association, 2000, pp. 281-291.
"Recognizing ethnic identity in the Upper Pleistocene: The case of the African Middle Stone Age/Middle Palaeolithic". In John Terrell, editor, Archaeology, language and history: Essays on culture and ethnicity. Scientific Archaeology for the Third Millennium. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey, 2001, pp. 125-152.
"Middle and Later Stone Age technology from the Lake Rukwa Rift, Southwestern Tanzania". The South African Archaeological Bulletin 56(173/174): 34-45, 2001.
"Out of Africa 2: the first migration of modern humans". In C. Allum, J. Kahn, C. Cluney and M. Peuramaki-Brown, editors, Ancient Travellers. Proceedings of the 27 annual Chacmool conference, 1994. Calgary: The Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, 2002, pp. 100-110.
Pamela R. Willoughby and Charmaine Sipe, "Stone age prehistory of the Songwe River Valley, Lake Rukwa basin, Southwestern Tanzania". African Archaeological Review 19(4): 203-221, 2002.
"How much of early human evolution was a response to catastrophe?". For Apocalypse Then: the Proceedings of the 34th annual Chacmool conference, November 2002. Calgary: The University of Calgary Press, in press.
"Palaeoanthropology and the evolutionary place of humans in nature". International Journal of Comparative Psychology 18(1): 60-90, 2005.
"Middle and Later Stone Age technology in southwestern Tanzania". In Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the PanAfrican Archaeological Association for Prehistory and Related Studies, Gaborone, Botswana, 2005; 24 ms. pp., submitted October 18, 2005.
"Tempo and mode in the Palaeolithic: How to understand the origins of culture". In J. Wilkins and K. Anderson, ediutors, Tools of the Trade, the 38th annual Chacmool conference (2005). Calgary: University of Calgary Press, pp. 31 to 49, 2009.
“Mitochondrial Eve and the African Middle Stone Age: Gender and race in the study of ‘modern’ human origins”. In S. Terendy, N. Lyons and M. Janse-Smekal, editors, Qu(e)erying Archaeology: Proceedings of the 37th annual Chacmool Archaeology conference (2004). Calgary: Chacmool Archaeological Society, pp. 271-281, 2009.
“From the Middle to the Later Stone Age in Eastern Africa”. In Marta Camps and Parth R. Chauhan, editors, Sourcebook of Paleolithic Transitions: Methods, Theories and Interpretations. New York: Springer, pp. 301-314, 2009.
Benjamin Collins and Pamela R. Willoughby, “The Faunal Analysis of Magubike and Mlambalasi, Two MSA-LSA Archaeological Sites from Iringa District, Tanzania”. Journal of Taphonomy; 8(1): 33-68, 2010.
“The Archaeology of early modern humans in southern Tanzania: An historical perspective”. For the proceedings of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of Zinjanthropus conference, Arusha, Tanzania, August 14, 2009; 34 pages, 7335 words; submitted February 2, 2010.
“The Middle and Later Stone Age in the Iringa Region of southern Tanzania”. Quaternary International 270: 103-118, 2012.
Elizabeth Sawchuk and Pamela R. Willoughby, “Terminal Pleistocene Later Stone Age Human Remains from the Mlambalasi Rock Shelter, Iringa Region, Southern Tanzania”. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 25(5): 593-607, 2015.
Jennifer M. Miller and Pamela R. Willoughby. “Radiometrically dated ostrich eggshell beads from the Middle and Later Stone Age of Magubike Rockshelter, southern Tanzania”. Journal of Human Evolution 74(1): 118-122, 2014.
Note: other publications are currently in production.
Contracted reports and Non-Refereed Publications
"Spheroids: African Early and Middle Stone Age Technology and Variability". Anthroquest 26:13-14, 1983.
"Report on the 1988 SAAAm business meeting, Phoenix, Arizona". Nyame Akuma 30: 2-3, 1989.
"Grants for African studies: funding available to Canadian citizens and landed immigrants or African nationals for graduate and postdoctoral training". Canadian Association of African Studies Newsletter, winter 1990, pp. 22-32.
Jane Ross and Pamela Willoughby, "African Studies at the University of Alberta". Canadian Association of African Studies Newsletter, spring 1990, pp. 50-58, 105-106.
"Grants for African studies: an update". Canadian Association of African Studies Newsletter, autumn 1990, pp. 29-38.
"Stone age archaeology in Mbeya and Rukwa Regions, Southwestern Tanzania". Nyame Akuma34: 30-37, December 1990. "Prehistoric archaeology in southwestern Tanzania". Canadian Association of African Studies Newsletter, autumn 1991, pp. 3-8.
"An archaeological survey of the Songwe River, Lake Rukwa Basin, Southwestern Tanzania". Nyame Akuma 37: 28-35, 1992.
"Bibliography of Works by Canadian Archaeologists on Africa". Bibliographic Series: Canadian Contributions to African Studies, 18 pp., 1992.
Comment on N. Stern, "The structure of the Lower Palaeolithic archaeological record". Current Anthropology 34(3): 219-220, 1993.
"Four million years of hominid evolution in Africa: an international congress in honour of Dr. Mary Leakey's outstanding contribution in palaeoanthropology". Anthropology Newsletter 35(2): 11-13, February 1994.
Editorials for Nyame Akuma, two times a year, since 1994.
"The origins of modern human behaviour". The Friends of the University of Alberta Museums Newsletter, summer 2000, pp. 5-6.
"Hiring practices in archaeology: a Lingua Franca study". Bulletin of the Society of American Archaeology 17(5): 11-12, November 1999.
"Investigating the origins of modern human behaviour in southwestern Tanzania: a Middle or a Later Stone Age event?". Journal of Human Evolution 38(3): A34-A35, March 2000. Refereed abstract of presentation for Paleoanthropology society meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 2000.
"Stone age adaptation in the Songwe River Valley, Lake Rukwa Basin, Southwestern Tanzania. Unpublished research report submitted to the Tanzanian Commission on Science and Technology (COSTECH) and the Department of Antiquities, June 2000; 161 ms. pp.
"When did hominids become human? Guest Column for University of Alberta Express news; September 14, 2000.
"Middle and Later Stone Age prehistory of the Lake Rukwa Rift Valley, Southwestern Tanzania". The Digging Stick (Newsletter of the South African Archaeological Association) 18(3): 13-14, Fall 2001.
Katie Biittner, Pastory M. Bushozi and Pamela R. Willoughby, “The Middle and Later Stone Age of the Iringa Region, southern Tanzania: An Introduction”. Nyame Akuma 68: 62-73, December 2007.
Katie Biittner, Pastory Bushozi and Pamela R. Willoughby. “Stone Age archaeology in Iringa Region, Tanzania” / “Akiologia ya Wakati wa Zana za Mawe, Mkoa wa Iringa, Tanzania”. Powerpoint posters about our 2006 research distributed to museums, cultural officers and community members in Iringa, Tanzania; completed June 2008.
Katie M. Biittner, Katharine Alexander, Benjamin Collins, Pastory M. Bushozi, and Pamela Willoughby, “The Archaeological Heritage of Iringa Region, Tanzania / Hifadhi ya Kumbukumbu za Mambo ya Kale (Akiolojia) katika Mkoa wa Iringa, Tanzania”. English and Swahili posters about our 2008 research prepared for distribution to museums, cultural officers and community members in Iringa, Tanzania, June 2010.
Katie M. Biittner, Pastory M. Bushozi and Pamela Willoughby, “Archaeological Significance of Magubike Rockshelter / Pango la Magubike katika elimu ya wa Mambo ya Kale (Akiolojia)”. English and Swahili posters about our 2008 research prepared for distribution to museums, cultural officers and community members in Iringa, Tanzania, June 2010.
Katie M. Biittner, Pastory M. Bushozi and Pamela R. Willoughby, “East African Culture History / Utamaduni wa Kale katika Africa ya Mashariki”. English and Swahili posters about our 2008 research prepared for distribution to museums, cultural officers and community members in Iringa, Tanzania, June 2010.
Katie M. Biittner, Pastory M. Bushozi, Jennifer Miller, Elizabeth Sawchuk, and Pamela Willoughby, “Archaeological Significance of Mlambalasi Rockshelter”. Poster about our 2010 research prepared for distribution to museums, cultural officers and community members in Iringa, Tanzania, June 2012.
Katie M. Biittner and P. R. Willoughby, “Working with Local Communities and Managing Cultural Heritage in Iringa Region, Tanzania”. The SAA Record 12: 36-39, 2012.
Encyclopaedia entry: “The First Humans”. In The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology: The World’s Most Significant Sites and Cultural Treasures. Lane Cove, Australia: Global Book Publishing Pty. Ltd., pp. 62-67, 2007.
Encyclopaedia entry: “Earliest Modern Humans”. In The World Encyclepedia of Archaeology: World’s Most Significant Sites and Cultural Treasures. Lane Cove, Australia: Global Book Publishing Pty. Ltd., pp. 68-75, 2007.
Three encyclopaedia entries: “Africa – Homo ergaster (1000 words), “Homo heidelbergensis” (750 words) and “sidebar on the relation of Homo sapiens to the Neanderthals” (150 words). In Encyclopedia of World History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, submitted July 15, 2008.
Three encyclopaedia entries: “The multiregional versus the out of Africa model” (1702 words), “Homo sapiens in Africa” (1082 words) and “Diets of our Miocene and early Pliocene ancestors” (1078 words). In Encyclopedia of World History: Africa. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO; accepted May 15, 2008.
Four encyclopedia entries: “What do we know of Neanderthal social life? (1024 words). Out of Africa: Homo ergaster and Homo erectus (813 words). “Homo erectus” in Europe (543 words) and “Variation in social organization, 50,000 to 5000 years ago” (1000 words). In Encyclopedia of World History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO; accepted August 5, 2009.
One encyclopedia entry: The SASES system. In B. Wood, editor, Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. New York: John Wiley; accepted November 16, 2009 (334 words).
“East Africa: The Stone Age”. In Neil Asher Silberman, editor, The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, second edition. Oxford: Oxford University, pp. 430-433, 2012.
Co-editor with Dr. David Lubell of Nyame Akuma, a bulletin of African Archaeology published by the Society of Africanist Archaeologists in America, 1987-1989.
Edited newsletter of the Area Studies Committee, Africa and South Asia, 1989, 1990.
Editor of Nyame Akuma: bulletin of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists, December 1994 to December 2008 (2 issues per year).
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