Today in Orlando
This is a small sample drawn from within and beyond the lives and careers of writers. Look again tomorrow! Read more about The Orlando Project chronology.
Between August 3, 1596 and August 2, 1597
Rachel Speght was born, perhaps in Cambridge, since there is no record of her birth in London.
3 August 1710
The Examiner, or, Remarks upon Papers and Occurrences was launched by Jonathan Swift with the express intention of examining and correcting false statements from other periodicals; it ran until 1716
Published in London, it was also reprinted in Dublin. Delarivier Manley was later editor of this paper.
3 August 1716-1 November 1718
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu dated the edited letters making up her manuscript travel book about Europe, Turkey, and the Mediterranean: her Embassy Letters.
3 August 1744
In a postscript to his inheritance case, Dorothea Du Bois’s father was convicted of assault against the successful claimant, James Annesley, whom he had previously kidnapped.
Between August 1767 and January 1776
Mary Whateley Darwall added to her family of step-children six children of her own.
3 August 1818
Frances Wright and her sister Camilla boarded the American ship Amity, sailing to New York.
3 August 1824
Mary Bryan (now Bedingfield) sent an anguished appeal to Scott for an actual gift of money—fifteen pounds—to enable her to see a London specialist about her sight.
3 August 1824
Georgiana Iremonger married Sir William Abraham Chatterton of Castle Mahon, County Cork, a baronet twelve years her senior.
3 August 1832
In the wake of the first Reform Bill, Henry Hunt presented Parliament with a petition for female enfranchisement on behalf of Miss Mary Smith of Stanmore, Yorkshire.
The petition requested the vote for unmarried women who met the property qualifications.
W. J. Fox remarked the following month in the Monthly Repository on the irony of women’s exclusion, given that a woman stood to inherit the crown.
3 August 1841
Juliana Horatia Gatty (later Juliana Horatia Ewing) was born at Ecclesfield near Sheffield, the second daughter in a family of ten children.
3 August-10 August 1849
Queen Victoria and her family made their initial visit to Ireland.
3 August 1850
The child Ouida, with her mother, left England for Boulogne on the coast of France, where they spent a number of weeks visiting her father, Louis Ramé, and were introduced to Laetitia Christine Bonaparte.
3 August 1859
Harriet Beecher Stowe set out on a third European trip, again for the purpose of securing international copyright (for her novel The Minister’s Wooing); she sent reports to The Independent from Italy.
3 August 1867
Louisa Baldwin’s son Stanley, who later became Prime Minister, was born.
3 August 1881
The Seventh International Medical Congress was officially opened in London by the Prince of Wales, bringing medical science onto an international public stage, albeit an all-male one.
This meeting hosted over 3,000 delegates from seventy countries and provided an opportunity for the brightest medical minds to feed off one another.
Women were excluded from the conference despite protests from forty-three qualified women. In an effort to quiet the outcry over this, the organizing committee issued a statement to the effect that their decision was not a result of pressure from their Patron, Queen Victoria. It is likely, given the strength of the female anti-vivisectionist movement, that women were excluded in part to facilitate the passage of resolutions in favour of experiments on animals.
3 August 1887
Rupert Brooke, poet, was born at Rugby in Warwickshire, the middle one in a family of three sons.
3 August 1906
Pauline Johnson published A Pagan in St. Paul’s, the most successful of three articles by her which appeared in London’s Daily Express this summer.
3 August 1914
Strongly anti-armament, Lady Ottoline Morrell persuaded her Liberal MP husband, Philip Morrell, to speak in the House of Commons against Britain’s entry into the coming war (later called the Great War, later still World War I).
3 August 1914
Germany (which had already, for two days, been at war with Russia) declared war on France. To people in Britain it was becoming apparent that this was no limited, containable conflict.
3 August 1916
In the aftermath of the Easter Rising, Irish nationalist Roger Casement, formerly Sir Roger, was executed for treason at Pentonville Prison in London for attempting to smuggle a shipment of German arms to Ireland.
Casement’s invasion from Germany was bungled; he arrived in Ireland with no weapons and only two other men. After his arrest he sent a message attempting to prevent the Rising from going forward. While he was in prison the authorities read his secret homosexual diaries. These were believed in some quarters to be forged, but they served thoroughly to discredit Casement with the English and Irish public, though a small number of writers—Yeats, Shaw, Galsworthy, Conan Doyle, and Dora Sigerson and her husband Clement Shorter—campaigned for a reprieve. (Now in the public domain, having been tested both electronically and chemically, the diaries are almost universally believed to be genuine.) The British government stripped Casement of his knighthood before his death.
3 August 1920
P. D. James was born at 164 Walton Street, Oxford.
3 August 1924
British novelist Joseph Conrad died of a heart attack at his home in Bishopsbourne, Kent.
3 August 1944
Butler’s Education Act established the Ministry of Education and raised the school leaving age for both boys and girls to fifteen.
The Education Act of 1944 was broad enough in scale to remain a foundation of today’s school system. The aim of the Act was to give children a better start in life with more educational opportunities. With the Act, the Board of Education became the Ministry of Education, and the secondary age of leaving was to be raised to fifteen (this was implemented in 1947), and eventually to sixteen (which was delayed until 1973). Education for both boys and girls was compulsory to this age and was defined as a continuous process, arranged in three stages: primary, secondary, and further.
The channelling of more working-class children into grammar schools and sixth forms resulted over time in a radical change in the social makeup of universities.
3 August 1945
Ellen Wilkinson (Labour) became the first female Minister of Education.
She was the third person to hold this office since the Ministry of Education replaced the Board of Education on 3 August 1944. Her aim was, she said, “to remove from education those class distinctions which are the negation of democracy.” Wilkinson died only two years later.
8:30 3 August 1954
Colette died of cardiac arrest in Paris.
3 August 1958
The USS Nautilus became the first submarine to travel under the polar ice cap from the Pacific to the Atlantic.
3 August 1992
Again issuing works in different genres on the same date, Ann Oakley published with HarperCollins a third novel, The Secret Lives of Eleanor Jenkinson.
3 August 1997-2 August 1998
At the age of seventy-seven, P. D. James began keeping a diary which she wrote for one year, and published in 1999 as “A Fragment of Autobiography,” with the title Time to Be in Earnest.
3 August 2005
In The Democratic Genre: Fan Fiction in a Literary Context (whose cover shows a computer mouse), Sheenagh Pugh set out to show how this new genre has evolved and developed.